Risk Factors Associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Children in Selected Primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya

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Elixir Social Studies 122


The main purpose for this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in selected primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. The rise in defiance cases among children in schools in Kenya, the social, educational and economic impact it has on the children and their families have led for the need for proper diagnosis and effective intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with oppositional defiant disorder among children. Quasi experimental research design was used in the study with a sample of 180 respondents .The study involved children aged between 9 to 14 years. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the two schools. 315 respondents completed the demographic questionnaires; the respondent’s parents also completed the socio-demographic questionnaires. Teachers and parents completed the CADBI at baseline assessment to identify those with symptoms of ODD. Systematic sampling method was applied on 249 participants who met the criteria for ODD because the number exceeded the required sample size. Risk factors associated with ODD were; religion, educational level of the respondents, conflicted relationship with parents, punishment in school, socio economic status and suspension from school, respondents whose parents were casual laborers, the level of education of the respondent’s parents. Significance was reported at p < 0.05. In conclusion, primary schools need to have professional psychologists to provide counseling services to the children presenting with ODD symptoms and devise intervention that will help in the management of ODD .This will help the children function well both socially and academically. This will also stop the progression of ODD to other mental disorders when they are adults for example; Depression, Anxiety, Antisocial Disorder which causes problems with adjustment in the community.


Journal Article


Oppositional defiant Disorder, Risk factors, Children, Child, Adolescent Disruptive, Behavior Inventory.


Susan Changorok, Philemon Yugi, Winnie Waiyaki and Alice Munene. Risk Factors Associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Children in Selected Primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. Elixir International Journal 122 (2018) 5187251881