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    Inculcating Spiritual Disciplines Among Post-High School Youth: A Case Study of The Vuma Transitional Program of The Nairobi Chapel Church, Nairobi Kenya
    (International Journal of Education Humanities and Social Science, 2021) Murumba Pauline C.
    The future of any society is vested in the younger generation; and religious heritage is important in enhancing morality in society. In Kenya, culture change has led to a gap whereby the rite of passage in early adolescence only prepares young people for teenage life. After high school, when the Kenyan law recognizes them as adults, there is no institutionalized ROP. This creates a gap because youth are left alone to maneuver young adulthood. Realizing this gap, a few churches have developed curricula whereby they equip the youth with religious instruction that can jump start them into the next phase of life. Using Kolb’s experiential learning theory, this study endeavored to establish the role of church based transitional programs in inculcating Christian spiritual disciplines among post high school youth. A case study was done on the 2018 edition of the VUMA program organized by the Nairobi Chapel Church, Nairobi Kenya. In this phenomenological study, 30 out of 112 youth and all the five counselors and program director participated in interviews. The data was then transcribed into text and subsequently coded using the NVIVO software. The emerging themes provided the basis for discussion of the results. Findings revealed that the program inculcated a culture of Bible Study and Prayer among the youth through daily activities of Quiet Time, Bible study and teachings.
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    The Ubuntu Principle And Salvation: A Focus On The Impact Of Adult Role Modelling On The Sanctification Process Of African Youth
    (International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS), 2023-11) Murumba Pauline C. & Kitur Catherine C.
    The primary focus of the paper is to discuss the sanctification process among African youth through the lens of the Ubuntu principle. The study applies the missional hermeneutic approach to link the words of Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:1 “Follow my example as I follow the example of Christ” with adult role modelling of their faith journey to young people in and outside the church. The younger generation carries the hope of every society. Urbanization and modernity have bred individualism and therefore led to a breakdown in the African culture of togetherness where young people’s guidance and mentorship were done communally. Each gender was attended to by their seniors; a process that required quantity and quality time. Today’s parents are quite busy eking a living that youth are left to find their way around the often- murky waters of youthfulness. Studies show that many young adults find wrong role models, which end up in wrong behavior and relationships. By the time they consider salvation, they are bruised and in need of healing. The church mandate is to care for all members of the body by providing an alternative community where every person feels they belong. This study examines how the older generation can create an environment for the young people who not only need to hear what is taught, but also watch the teacher practice how to live out that Christian faith in the process of sanctification. Church youth workers will hopefully create ways and means for such conversations and processes in the church. This winning lifestyle is recommended to any devoted Christian everywhere.
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    Prevalence of Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents with Depressive Disorders and Posttraumatic Stress in Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya
    (African Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2020) Mugambi Priscilla, Munene Alice & Mogute Mary
    Suicide is one of the top causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 29 years old, ranking second globally. Suicidal behavior (SB) tends to be common among psychiatric patients, making it a complex mental health problem. High suicide rates have been recorded among adolescents, hence the need for this study. The objectives for this study were to establish the prevalence of suicidal behavior, determine the prevalence of SB among adolescents with Depressive Disorders (DD) and/or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) and relate the prevalence of SB to socio-demographic characteristics of adolescents in informal settlements of Nairobi. Understanding the prevalence of SB is critical in suicide prevention effort. A total of 1,040 high school students in Nairobi, Kenya participated in the study. Data was collected by use of a socio-demographic questionnaire and three standardized psychological tests; SBQ-R for assessing suicidal behavior, BDI-II for DD and PCL-5 for PTSD. Data from the cross-sectional study was analyzed using SPSS version 24 software. The results indicated 21.5% overall prevalence of SB, 17.0% PTSD comorbid with SB, 16.6% DD with SB and 15.0% DD with PTSD and SB among the 1,040 adolescents from informal settlements of Nairobi. The prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.01) among female respondents in comparison to males. The high rates of SB among high school adolescents with DD and PTSD imply a need for relevant psychological assessments and interventions in non-clinical settings.
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    Psychosocial Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents in Informal Settlements of Nairobi County, Kenya
    (African Research Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 2020) Mugambi Priscilla, Munene Alice & Mogute Mary
    Suicidal Behavior (SB) is a precursor to eventual death by suicide. Hence, in suicide preventive effort there’s the need for accurate identification of those at risk. The main objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial risk factors for SB among adolescents in the informal settlements of Nairobi. The study used quasi-experimental design and results are at baseline analysis. High-school students aged between 14-22 years old from the informal settlements of Nairobi were targeted. Four high schools were purposively sampled and data was drawn from the 1,040 respondents in the entire school population who were screened at baseline. Data was collected using Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data analyzed using SPSS version 24 software was presented in tables and results were discussed. The findings revealed DD and PTSD as significant (p<0.001) risk factors for SB. Separate logistic models established the following life stressors as psychosocial risk factors (p<0.001) for SB in the following order of severity; hopelessness and worthlessness, relationship problems, traumatic experiences, mental disturbances, family problems, alcohol or substance abuse, physical illness, academic challenges, financial problems and death of dear ones. Considering these risk factors, psycho-education on SB among adolescents is imperative for early detection of those at risk. This would lead to timely intervention for the prevention of suicide.
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    The Role of Parental Protection of Teenage Children from Cyber Bullying: A Case of Ruai Ward, Kasarani Constituency in Nairobi County-Kenya
    (The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge, 2018-01) Mogute Mary M.
    The upsurge of information technology (IT); easy accessibility and use of internet, mobile phones and other technological devices such as computers, tablets and smart phones have become part of peoples’ lifestyles. IT has positively enhanced communication, networking, knowledge and skills sharing, online businesses and entertainment, turning the world into a global village. Despite these benefits, several challenges have marred the use of IT. Of interest to this paper is online cyberbullying of teenage children by bullies who take advantage of their age and innocence. Though there are no official statistics on the number of children exposed to cyber bullying, there is an increase of 88% children seeking help for online abuse. Effects of cyber bullying are devastating and they present themselves with physical, social and psychological dimensions. This necessitates parental protection of teenage children form cyber bullies. However, most parents are either not aware, unavailable or lack necessary support systems to equip them with knowledge of guiding and protecting teenage children while online. Teenagers have access to internet enabled devices but are hardly guided on how to prevent cyberbullying. Most parents and teenage children do not know how to respond when confronted with cyberbullying. As a result of this, parents who are teenagers’ primary care givers are faced with the challenge of protecting their children from cyberbullying attacks. This is the background that informs this study which sought to; find out teenage children’s ability to access internet, establish respondents’ awareness of teenage children vulnerability to cyberbullying, investigate parental role in protecting teenage children from cyberbullying and suggest strategies to enhance teenage children protection from cyber bullying. This study used descriptive survey design; the target population of the study was church going parents with teenagers from five selected churches in Ruai Ward, Kasarani Constituency in Nairobi County-Kenya. Purposive sampling and interview schedules were used to identify the respondents and collect data respectively. The findings revealed that majority (94.1%) of teenagers had access to internet, 90.2% respondents were aware of cyberbullying risks, 88.2% guided their children on internet use and there was need for awareness creation and strict legal enforcement of laws to protect teenage children from cyberbullying.
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    Prevalence of PTSD Among Adolescent Boys in Selected Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya
    (American Journal of Applied Psychology, 2020) Mukangi Assumptor, Nyagwencha Stella & Mogute Mary
    Background: Adolescents throughout the world are at risk of developing PTSD. PTSD has detrimental long term effects on every facet of life and has been shown to negatively impact the various areas of life. These areas often include: academic performance, cognitive abilities, emotion regulation and behavioural regulation. In adolescents, PTSD has particularly been implicated in high dropout rates which subsequently leads to poverty, fewer opportunities and a decreased lifespan. Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD among adolescent boys in selected secondary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. Methods: Two secondary schools were conveniently sampled with a total of 976. The adolescent boys were aged 14-17-years. The respondents filled a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child PTSD Symptom Scale-V-Self Report (CPSS-V-SR) which screened for PTSD symptoms. Results: The findings showed that the prevalence of PTSD was at 27.6%. The findings also showed that respondents who lived in other counties (exclusive of Nairobi County and Machakos County) had the least frequency of 42 (15.6%) but reported the highest mean PTSD symptoms at 24.5 (±24.5) and a statistically significant mean difference established in the counties p<0.006. Conclusion: The need for psychotherapy in secondary schools is therefore essential in order to alleviate PTSD prevalence. This is also crucial in order to buffer adolescents from comorbid diseases and psychological disorders.
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    Participatory Women Empowerment: Increased Rural Agricultural Productivity toward Sustainable Development in Kenya
    (Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG), 2017) Mogute Mary & Limbitu Julius M.
    Participation of all rural community members is important in promoting agricultural productivity toward sustainable development. Women empowerment is necessary to enable them participate in promoting increased agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Empowered women have equal control of decision making, taking responsibility, holding different social actors accountable, having access to resources for food production, and control over agricultural produce to improve the welfare of the household and community members. However, rural women mostly face disempowering forces from the dominant paternalistic indigenous African culture. The study used desktop research method to assess the dynamics of participatory empowerment of rural women to increase agricultural productivity in the theoretical basis of gender and sustainable development in Kenya. The study found that women in rural areas work very hard in the labor intensive agricultural production, but have very law control over how the crop produce is utilized. Men tend to dominate decision making about the agricultural produce, mostly characterized by selling food produce soon after harvesting. This leaves the household without enough food to last until the next crop is harvested. The conclusion was that there was need for community education through rights-based approach to overcome the socio-cultural challenges of indigenous paternalistic culture common in the rural communities, and achieve gender integration in sustainable development. The study recommended further research and action that could empower rural women to participate in increasing agricultural productivity with gender equality. Rural women need to be enabled to take active role in determining the appropriate utilization of the crop produce to improve the well being of rural vulnerable households toward sustainable development.
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    Gender-based Violence: An Impediment to Sustainable Development in Kenya.
    (International Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences (IJRESS), 2019-07) Mogute Mary M.
    Gender-based violence (GBV) is the most pervasive and primitive form of violation of human rights (UN Women, 2016). Though, the international community anticipates that people should live free of fear, intimidation and abuse by the year 2030, there is evidence of increasing incidents of GBV in most communities in Kenya (National Gender Equality Commission (NGEC, 2016). Global statistics reveal that 35% of women are physically and/or sexually abused are in their lifetime, 47% are murdered compared to 6% men by intimate partners or family members, 55% are victims of forced labour and 98% are victims of sexual exploitation (UN Women, 2016). Besides GBV being an extreme violation of human rights, it results into huge economic costs (NGEC, 2016; UN Women, 2016). Global cost of GBV is approximately 2% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) which is an equivalent of 1.5 trillion (UN Women). This avoidable cost poses challenges to sustainable development at individual and community levels. Therefore, this paper generally endeavoured to establish how GBV hinders effective sustainable development in Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives; identify forms of GBV, establish prevalence rates of GBV in Kenya, explore causes of GBV, and suggest how GBV could be mitigated to promote healthy social functioning of individuals, families and communities towards inclusive, constructive and productive participation of men and women in sustainable development initiatives. Desk top research methodology was adopted, where existing literature on GBV was reviewed. The findings revealed that GBV is still a major concern in Kenya; physical, sexual, emotional, economic and harmful practices are the forms of violence common and are mainly perpetuated against women and girls; causes of GBV are based on; individual, relationship, community and society while the cost of GBV is approximated to be 1.1% of Kenya’s GDP. Mitigation strategies are; survivor-centered, communities-centered and right-based, upholding humanitarian philosophy and the principle of “Do No Harm”. Key recommendations are; create awareness of the irrational causes and negative effects of GBV on individuals and society, strict and punitive justice system to deter perpetuators of GBV and integrating GBV knowledge and skills in school curriculum as a preventive strategy
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    Factors Associated with Depression and Poor Academic Performance among the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents in Selected Public primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya.
    (African Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2020) Kerongo Stellah Osoro, Munene Alice & Mogute Mary
    According to World Health Organization (2012), depression is regarded as a common mental disorder. Moreover, depression symptoms are often linked with substantial comorbid impairments that negatively affect academic performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) adolescents (Sommers, 2014). This paper examined factors associated with depression and poor academic performance among DHH adolescents in selected public primary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. The 64 participants aged 14-20 were recruited for the study using Socio- Demographic Questionnaire (SDQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The Logit Linear regression analysis revealed the main factors contributing to participants’ academic performance as the mode of communication used (β = -.010 (p=0.014), frequency of participants’ caregiver assistance in doing homework (β= -0.153 (p=0.054), giving extra homework (β=0.005 (p=0.007) and those with whom participants shared their problems (β=0.111 (p=0.050). Further, the study findings revealed that there was association between predictive factors and academic performance; caregivers attending school organised meetings (p=0.034), encouraging participants to always work hard (p=0.034), caregivers being role models to participants (p=0.052) and participants being taught life skills by caregivers (p=0.006). In addition, the findings also indicated that the mode of communication used, how often caregivers assisted DHH adolescents in doing homework and giving of extra homework were predictive factors of DHH adolescents’ depression at p=0.01, p=0.005 and p=0.001, respectively. This study concluded that poor academic performance was associated with depression.
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    An assessment of the influence of gender on property access and control among the people of Kisii county in Kenya
    (International Journal of Development Research, 2017) Mogute Mary
    This study assessed the influence of gender in property access and control among the Kisii people of Kenya. The study was guided by two objectives; identify key properties in Kisii County and establish the relationship between access and control over property and gender. Properties identified were residential houses, land, cattle, poultry, goats, commercial plots, houses, sheep and motor vehicles. However, this study focused on houses, land and livestock. Findings revealed men had unlimited access to family properties while women had limited access. Though both genders had access, there was an indication of gender disparity. Regarding control, there was evidence of a relationship between houses, land and livestock control and gender. Chi-square test outputs with p-values ranging between 0.001- 0.002 revealed that property control was skewed towards one gender. Discriminative property practices were culturally upheld by both men and women despite human rights campaigns and legal frameworks that promote gender equality in property access and control. To attain sustainable development, gender inclusiveness in decisionmaking, unlimited user rights and management of property is critical.
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    Prevalence of Depression Among Orphaned Adolescents in Selected Children’s Homes in Githurai Division, Nairobi County
    (International Research Journal Publishers, 2023-07) Gitahi Purity Wambui , Njeru Michael & Menecha Jared
    The death of a parent can leave children helpless and at risk of both psychological and physical problems, the difficulties become compounded when they live in an orphanage. The number of orphans in Kenya will most likely grow in future due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which is a primary cause of death in adults in Kenya. Children residing in orphanages are among the most vulnerable group in the society as they live with fear of abuse and neglect. Despite the high levels of depression and other mental illnesses in Kenya, it is difficult to plan for effective interventions for mental illnesses due to large gaps in data, which is not aggregated by age. The data that is used is an estimate from the developed world whose context is different from the Kenyan context. This implies that systematic data on depression among the orphaned adolescents in Kenya, especially those living in children’s homes, is insufficient. It is for this reason that this study sought to explore the prevalence of depression among orphaned adolescents in the selected children’s homes in Githurai Division, Nairobi County. The study population comprised orphaned adolescents (13-19 years old) in the ten selected children’s homes in Githurai Division. A sample of 81 orphaned adolescents was selected through purposive sampling. Data collection was done using questionnaires and in-depth interview and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. The data was presented in form of statistical tables, charts, and graphs. The study established that 23.5% of all the orphaned adolescents aged between 13 and 19 in the selected children’s homes met the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). The study recommended that community awareness programs should be conducted. Further, orphaned adolescents in children’s homes should be trained on important life skills like interpersonal skills, social skills, problem solving skills, leadership skills, and communication skills.
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    The Types of Anxiety Disorders Common among Girls’ Secondary School Students in Selected Public Schools in Dagoretti North Sub-County, Kenya
    (Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing, 2020-09) Muta Ruth Wamuyu, Ireri Niceta & Menecha Jared Bravin
    Anxiety disorders among high school students have been on the rise in the recent decade. Though anxiety disorders affect both boys and girls, studies have shown that there exist gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety. The purpose of the study was to identify the types of anxiety disorders common among girls’ secondary school students in selected public schools in Dagoretti North Sub-County, Kenya. Descriptive research design was used. The target population was 1260 girls studying in the girls’ schools in the Sub County aged between 13- 18 years. A sample of 200 participants was selected using simple random sampling technique. The findings indicated that GAD, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and school avoidance were all common among secondary school students in the sampled schools. 81.5% of the respondents had at least an anxiety disorder. The study recommended that the rising levels of anxiety among secondary school students need to be addressed urgently because of the comorbidity of anxiety. Managing anxiety is most likely to lead to higher academic achievement. Secondary school students need to be psycho-educated on the self-management of anxiety.
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    An investigation of the determinants of women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the kisii community in Kenya
    (International Journal of Current Research, 2017-08) Mogute Mary
    This study investigated factors determining women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the Kisii community in Kenya. The Kisii community, just like many other traditional patriarchal societies in the world, gives men priority over women in inheritance. Though discriminative, this practice is normative and culturally sanctioned by both men and women. Though, human rights and constitutional provisions endevours to treat men and women as equals before the law, in patriarchal societies, men stil have an upper hand over their female counterparts with regards to property ownership and inheritance rights. This amounts to gender discrimination which is contrary to human and women’s rights. The objectives of this study were to; investigate the determinants of women’s property ownership and inheritance practices, and proffer strategies that could be used to promote women’s property ownership and inheritance rights of key resources in the community such as land, houses and livestock. The study was informed by the conflict and social role theories. It adopted mixed method design. The findings revealed that cultural beliefs and practices, socio-economic factors, patriarchy, lack of legal awareness on women’s rights to property and land scarcity were critical factors that influenced women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the Kisii people.
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    The Translation of Metaphors of Emotions of Anger from EkeGusii to English Using the Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory
    (International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, 2023-04) Onkware Gillphine Chebunga , Menecha Jared Bravin , and Ogeto Margaret Kerubo
    The aim of this paper was to discuss common words used in reference to anger in Ekegusii, a Bantu speaking community in Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. Using the Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Kövecses 2020), linguistic expressions of anger that were recorded in a pilot study have been analyzed for metaphorical content, thereafter a translation was made from Ekegusii to English to check for the translation challenges. The findings reveal that Ekegusii displays differences in the conceptualization of anger as compared to English. One notable difference is realized about where anger comes from in Ekegusii. Anger as an emotion is conceptualized as coming from an external source and therefore it ‘catches’ persons. In the same regard, a person ‘hears’ anger thereby showing that anger is an external emotion that is personified.
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    Collaborative Motivation for Sustainable Learning and Successful Completion of Doctoral Studies: A Case of Daystar University Lecturers in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies, 2018-01) Mogute Mary M.
    Just like the rest of the world, the demand for doctoral studies in Kenya is on the rise (Gudo, Olel & Oanda, 2011). The desire to acquire knowledge and skills to prospect for better opportunities, increase social status and most importantly for lecturers in Kenyan universities, to secure their current jobs in their teaching careers are the driving forces behind this trend (Gudo, et al, 2011; Nganga, 2013). The Commission for University Education (CUE) in Kenya requires all university lecturers to have PhD (CUE, 2014). As a result of this, there has been an upsurge of doctoral enrolment in Kenyan universities, especially from among university lecturers without doctoral degrees, who have hurriedly registered to beat the August 2018 deadline set by CUE. The CUE (2014) harmonized university guidelines ratio for theses supervision is 1:3 for doctorate supervision and 1:5 for masters supervision. However, in practice supervisors have more students than recommended, thus, operating above the recommended threshold. As a result, supervisors are overburdened, a practice that could compromise the quality of teaching and supervision while students are not able to move with anticipated speed. This could lead to student de-motivation, however motivated they may have been at the time of enrolment. This study sought to establish the role of collaborative motivation as a strategy of enhancing sustainable learning, supervision and successful completion of doctoral degrees. This study used descriptive survey design. The sample comprised of Daystar University lecturers enrolled for doctoral studies at the time of fieldwork. Census sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Semi- structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Obtained data was organized, analyzed and interpreted to make deductions. Results of the study pointed out the importance of collaborative motivation in the pursuance of doctoral degrees and suggest better practices that could be adopted to enhance collaborative motivation critical for sustainable learning and successful completion of doctoral degrees.
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    Relationship Between Spousal Support and Marital Satisfaction Among Christian Couples: A Case Study of two Selected Churches in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (African Journal of Emerging Issues, 2023) Aseka Edna Oyiela, Ireri Niceta Wanja & Menecha Jared Bravin
    Purpose: There exists high rate of marital dissatisfaction due to marital conflicts, even among church couples. This study investigated the relationship between spousal support and marital satisfaction in Christian married couples in two selected churches in Nairobi County. Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative research method and used a descriptive study research design. Findings: The findings revealed a statistically significant strong positive correlation between marital satisfaction and spousal support. Recommendations: The study concluded that spousal support was important to the quality of a marriage. This implies that the greater the qualities of spousal support in a marriage, the greater the quality of marital satisfaction. The study recommended that the church should create pre-marital counseling; and the content and duration of such pre-marital sessions be designed to allow adequate coverage of all critical topics necessary to ensure quality spousal support. Couples in distress marriages should be encouraged to seek therapy from marriage and family therapists who can facilitate them in handling issues that bring conflicts in their marriages at a more personalized individual level.
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    Social-demographic Characteristics of Children Survivors of Incest who Developed PTSD between the Ages of 6 and 17 Years
    (Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing, 2022-09) Oluwaseun Afolabi Adewole, Ireri Niceta & Menecha Jared
    Post-trauma stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder which develops after exposure to a traumatic event. Incest is such a cause which affects the child psychologically, socially and physically. The study purposed to assess the social demographic characteristics of (PTSD) among child survivors of incest aged between 6-17 years seen at Nairobi Women’s Hospital Gender Based Violence & Recovery Centre (GVRC) in Nairobi County. The population included caregivers/parents, survivors, and key informants. The study used purposive sampling to select the site and utilized random sampling to select the key informants. The sample size comprised of 20 survivors, 20 parents and 2 key informants. Data was collected through TSCYC scale, and observation. The findings of this study pointed out that the prevalence of PTSD among child survivors of incest was 60 %; the levels of other psychological disorders stood at: Depression (63.69 ± 6.249SD), Anxiety (64.6 ± 7.123SD), Anger/aggression (64.43 ± 7.24SD), Dissociation (61.67 ± 8.753SD), and Sexual concerns (105.86 ± 8.536). All these were clinically significant; out of the 42 child survivors of incest, 9(21.4%) were traumatized, 4(9.5%) had depression, 2(4.8%) had an infection, 1(2.4%) had pregnancy, 1(2.4%) was sick while 25(59.5%) had a combination of all the other effects; 37(88%) of the child survivors went to hospital while 5(12%) visited any other professional for help. The study also found out that the level of education (r=- 0.017, p=0.913), familiarity with perpetrator (r=-0.232, p=0.139), and relationship with perpetrator (r=-0.133, p=0.401) were negatively correlated with PTSD. However, gender (r=0.170, p=0.282), place of assault (r=0.039, p=0.806), and frequency of abuse (r=0.110, p=0.487) were positively correlated with PTSD. The study concluded that PTSD was prevalent among children survivors of incest and the effects were varied. The caregivers were unaware of its existence and ill-equipped to pursue a treatment plan
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    The Level of Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic Accident Victims at Makindu Level 4 Hospital
    (Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing, 2021-08) Mweu Japhel Muoki , Ireri Niceta Wanja & Menecha Jared
    Road traffic accidents represent a major epidemic of non-communicable diseases in the current century. Globally it is estimated that 1.2 million people die yearly through road accidents and over 50 million people are disabled. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of depression on road traffic accident victims at Makindu level 4 Hospital. A descriptive research design was used. The study findings were presented by use of bar graphs and pie charts. The main finding of the study was that the prevalence of the road traffic accidents in Makindu Level 4 Hospital was at a high 57.14 percent. The findings from the study further indicate that the RTA victims admitted Makindu level 4 Hospital had a moderate level of depression and a high level of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This study recommended that in formulating policies targeting to reduce the psychological effects on victims due to road traffic accidents, the psychological therapists must be involved from the day of an accident up to the full healing depression. In supporting motor vehicle accidents victims‟ well-being then the government should offer public training to all motor vehicle riders and provide riding licenses to them at affordable fees so that survivalist nature increases, and this was also reducing the level of single parenthood.
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    Postnatal depression among the female aic youth: case of wamunyu, machakos County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Current Research, 2018) Muthengi Reuben , Ireri Niceta and Menecha Jared
    Background: Depression is a common psychological disorder in the world today. Despite the fact that a number of studies have been conducted on depression among the general youth population, limited studies have been done on the youth in the church especially those who have fallen victims of premarital pregnancies. There is an assumption that youths in the church don’t suffer the same way psychologically like those youths who are not in the church. This study therefore sought to investigate whether the female youths who have fallen prey to premarital pregnancies in AIC church also suffer from postnatal depression. Objective: To investigate the level of depression among AIC youths aged 13-24 involved in premarital pregnancies in Wamunyu DCC Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit female youths aged between 13-24 years in AIC churches within Wamunyu DCC. Those recruited had been victims of premarital pregnancies. After recruitment, Beck’s Depression Inventory was used to assess their level of depression. Besides this, a socio-demographic questionnaire was also used to gather relevant data for this study. Results: The study found out that the youths who were victims of premarital pregnancies suffered moderate levels of depression (20.38 ± (12.62SD)). This affected their mental health adversely besides stagnating their spiritual welfare. Conclusion: Female youth in the AIC church and who have been victims of premarital pregnancy suffer from postnatal depression. The church should therefore re- invent ways of helping such youth to return to normalcy and continue gaining from the spiritual nourishment.
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    An Investigation of the Factors Contributing to Infidelity Among Married Couples in Selected Mainstream Churches in Kikuyu Constituency, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing, 2020-09) Wanjiru Virginia , Ireri Niceta & Menecha Jared Bravin
    This study investigated the factors contributing to infidelity among married couples in selected mainstream churches in Kikuyu constituency, Kiambu County, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. A working sample size of 140 married couples was picked from the target population of 935 married couples from the mainstream churches in the constituency. The study found out that infidelity is common among couples in the mainstream churches. (99%) of the respondents agreed that there was infidelity in their church. Economic factors contributed to infidelity among married couples as the education level of the respondent was negatively correlated with infidelity and this was statistically significant (r = -2.38, p = 0.017). There was a negative correlation (r = -2.53) between monthly income and involvement in infidelity and this was statistically significant (p = 0.011). 99% of the respondents agreed that social factors influenced infidelity among married couples in the mainstream churches. 98% of the respondents reported that cultural factors, influenced infidelity among married couples in the mainstream churches. The respondents in the study had a very high level of acceptance of infidelity (mean of 71.06 ±1.1621 (SD)). This therefore shows that even though the respondents in the study were Christians, they felt that infidelity was common even among church members.