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    The relationship between Nairobi adolescents’ media use and their sexual beliefs and attitudes
    (African Journal of AIDS Research, 2017-06) Miller, Ann Neville; Kinnally, William; Maleche, Hellen; Booker, Nancy Achieng’
    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents’ perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport. A total of 464 students from 6 Nairobi secondary schools were surveyed. When students’ favourite musicians had a strong focus on physical relationships in their songs, those students estimated the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours among their peers higher. These students also endorsed gender stereotypical and casual attitudes about sex. Large amounts of time spend on the Internet was predictive of all sexual attitude variables. Students whose favourite TV programmes had a strong focus on physical relationships also estimated prevalence of peer sexual behaviour as high.
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    Communication for Mangrove Forest Conservation among the Coastal Communities in Kenya
    (International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2015-06) Wekesa, Allan Siangu; Aswani, Daniel Robert
    Rural communities in coastal areas depend on mangroves as their primary source of income generation, fuel, medicine and other basic necessities such as timber for housing. The wanton depletion of mangroves is a cause of serious environmental and economic concern. Wise management of these resource is therefore essential for the sustainable use and for the cultural and socio-economic welfare of the coastal inhabitants. In this connection, awareness raising through information to all relevant stakeholders is decisive in order to save the mangrove forests. The aim of this paper is to analyze the contribution of the different forms of communication in the dissemination of information. The findings of this study indicate the use of face to face communication through village meetings and seminars were found to be more effective communication channels as opposed to mass media tools like radio and TV due to the high levels of interaction and feedback opportunities.
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    Perceptions towards Government Communication Strategies on COVID-19 Vaccination in Kenya
    (Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies (, 2021-10) Aswani, Daniel Robert
    Kenya, like most countries in the world, continues to battle with the effects of the novel coronavirus (nCoV) popularly known as COVID-19. The rise in infections cannot be compared with a paltry 3% of the population that is fully vaccinated – a concern that puts the blame squarely on the way government has communicated on vaccine uptake. While there is an appreciation of constraining factors such as vaccine nationality ‘wars’, it is disturbing that where vaccines are availed, there remains anecdotal evidence on what spurs the hesitancy to take up vaccine in Kenya. This study sought to establish what drives the hesitancy in vaccine uptake by exploring the perceptions of COVID-19 survivors towards the communication strategies utilized by government to urge Kenyans to get vaccinated. The social influence theory provided a lens for understanding this phenomenon. Government communication strategies are competing with many voices that either deny the form of existence of the virus and hence refute the place of vaccines, or speak of the inefficiency of the vaccine, or create conspiracies around the use of vaccines. Good communication strategies seem to be the missing link in spurring the take up of COVID-19 vaccines and pushing the population to herd immunity. Only then, can the country encourage socio-economic development. This study answered research questions that explore problems, prospects, and perspectives that COVID-19 survivors (n=10) had towards the government communication strategies. The study took a phenomenological approach utilizing lived experiences of the survivors (5 now fully vaccinated and 5 are yet vaccinated). Explicated data was presented in themes. Participants noted use of different government communication strategies such as publicized vaccination of senior government officials; use of influencers; and use of media briefings. Based on findings and personal reflections, government communication strategies used by the government were reactive, pompous (or ignorant), and/or contradictory.
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    Prioritising employee-organisation relationships in non-profit organisations in Kenya: Antecedents, queries and contradictions
    (Journal of Development and Communication Studies, 2020-01-01) Gitau, Julie Gathoni; Chebii, Stella Jerop
    Although employees are the most critical of organisation publics, it is unclear whether employee-organisation relationships (EORs) in non-profit organisations (NPOs) in Kenya are prioritised. To investigate this question further, the study explored relationship antecedents in two non-profit organisations. The study was informed by relationship management theory and the symmetrical communication framework. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were carried out among 24 purposively sampled management and non-management employees. The data was manually analysed and requisite a priori and in vivo codes and themes identified. The study findings suggest a lack of understanding about the strategic role of public relations in the organisation. Further, technician oriented PR departments mediate the perceptions of and effort expended on internal relationships. Managing employee-organisation relationships was perceived more as a human resource rather than a PR function which precludes more robust forms of PR practice. The researchers recommend a clear demarcation between the public relations and human resource function and to build strategic PR departments that embrace internal relationship management.
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    Old Habits, New Realities: Digital Newsrooms in Kenyan Commercial Media Houses
    (Daystar University, School of Communication, 2019-06-18) Wamunyu, Wambui; Wahutu, j. Siguru
    This article addresses digital cultures within the context of the fluid association between the media and the state in the African postcolony. Based on the premise that news organisations construct and disseminate knowledge, the article applies field theory in analysing observed and inferred practices at a radio station and journalism school in Kenya. The article finds that journalism curricula rely on predefined, non-contextualised norms and are yet to fully incorporate digital technologies. Additionally, there is a hybridisation of traditional and newer approaches in training, organisational structures and narrative forms in the Kenyan media landscape. But traditional sourcing cultures are retained, as is the engagement with audiences as consumers, rather than coproducers, of news.
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    Exploring Trust/Mistrust in Journalistic Practice: An Actor-network Analysis of a Kenyan Newsroom
    (Daystar University, School of Communication, 2022-02-17) Wamunyu, Wambui
    The entry of non-traditional actors into aspects of journalistic practice has been widely explored in scholarship, as have expressions of the public’s trust in journalistic work. However, there is a scarcity of research addressing the construct of trust in relation to the interactions among traditional and non-traditional journalism actors engaged in news production. Through the use of actor-network theory and by applying qualitative case study design, this study focused on the nature of journalistic practice in a digitally disrupted Kenyan newsroom, and how trust/mistrust manifested itself within the actor-network of journalistic practice. Theoretical and thematic analyses established the social and technological actors that had joined the process of journalistic practice while four findings emerged addressing notions of trust/ mistrust within the actor-network. These findings were as follows: trust occurs within an established routinized process; trust is enacted within a particular news media environment; new entrants in journalistic practice need to demonstrate value to gain trusted entry in the actor-network; and trust is engendered at institutional level but needs acceptance at individual level.
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    Old Habits, New Realities: Digital Newsrooms in Kenyan Commercial Media Houses
    (Daystar University, School of Communication, 2019-06-18) Wamunyu, Wambui; Siguru, Wahutu, J.
    This article addresses digital cultures within the context of the fluid association between the media and the state in the African postcolony. Based on the premise that news organisations construct and disseminate knowledge, the article applies field theory in analysing observed and inferred practices at a radio station and journalism school in Kenya. The article finds that journalism curricula rely on predefined, non-contextualised norms and are yet to fully incorporate digital technologies. Additionally, there is a hybridisation of traditional and newer approaches in training, organisational structures and narrative forms in the Kenyan media landscape. But traditional sourcing cultures are retained, as is the engagement with audiences as consumers, rather than coproducers, of news.
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    Traditional African Culture and Communication
    (In book, 2016-01) Lando, Agnes Lucy; Kochomay, Samuel
    Cattle rustling among Kenyan and non-Kenyan pastoralists remains the oldest, persistent, and most complex conflict. It is a violent, intermittent and often unpredictable warfare where communities raid each other for livestock. These raids cause human and material loss, displacement of families, fleeing teachers, school closures and student dropouts. Attempts to solve this problem either exacerbate the conflict or just produce short-term peace. The perpetual failure of successive governments and other actors to bring about conflict resolution for cattle rustling point to a missing link. This chapter explores the embeddedness of cattle rustling in the deep roots of pastoralists' traditional culture and communication. The chapter examines selected cattle rustling interventions in northern Kenya in the last three decades. This analysis has been synthesized with ethnographic research findings and Social Penetration Theory to explain the persistence of cattle rustling. Finally, the chapter proposes a culturally appropriate model to address cattle rustling.
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    The importance of interfaith dialog in the workplace for achieving organizational goals: a Kenyan case study
    (Taylor and francis group, 2015-01-15) Lando, Agnes Lucy
    Workplaces present divergent cultural conventions for engaging in work- and nonwork-related activities. However, when cultures in workplaces are mentioned, most people tend to think of cultures in the narrow sense of behavioral interaction, yet culture also includes variables of faith or religions. Therefore, just as people of different cultures may have the potential to clash when they come in contact, so would people of different faiths. Just like culture, diverse faiths have the potential of either enhancing or jeopardizing organizational cohesiveness and achievement of organizational goals. Interfaith dialog as practiced in some banking institutions in Kenya is a case in point. Diamond Trust Bank and Co-operative Bank of Kenya's workforce constitute Christians, Muslims, and Hindus, and as a practice, this workforce meets once a week to pray. This study assesses the effects of interfaith dialog in the workplace in achieving organizational goals. This research presents alternative frameworks for analyzing intercultural communication in the workplace based on the principles of faith. By providing a critique of existing models of language and intercultural communication in the workplace from an interfaith perspective, the aforementioned case could lead to presenting a scenario for the formulation/shaping of a theory of interfaith relations in intercultural workplaces.
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    Media-Invented Stories
    (In book, 2017-01) Lando, Agnes Lucy
    Several authors have researched on diverse challenges affecting media practice in different parts of the world: the growing influence of bribery (Dirbaba, 2010), one-sided and distorted reporting (Mfumbusa, 2008), pornographic and oversexed content, an inclination to acceptance of the brown envelope (Kasoma, 2010; Skjerdal, 2010; White, 2011; Nwabueze, 2010), and the disconnect between media training and practice (Lando, 2013). But with ICT, contemporary challenges include sources of news. With the aid of modern technology, a story that has appeared in one media house or platform can be reproduce in another without the reproducing journalist citing the previous source, and without disclosing to audiences that the story being presented is not original. Further, some journalists have presented stories that only exist in their fantasy. All these are cases of media lies. This chapter examines select cases of media lies and the ethical and credibility threat they pose to journalism.
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    Curriculum Reforms in Kenya
    (eScholarship, 2018) Njoya, Wandia
    The government seeks to replace the current system, in which children spend 8 years in primary school, 4 years in secondary school, and 4 years in university, with a new system in which chil dren spend 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior secondary, 3 years in senior secondary and 3 years at university. So the gov ernment is misleading people by calling this a curriculum reform, when it is a much bigger and more radical change going on
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    The Critical Role of Crisis Communication Plan in Corporations’ Crises Preparedness and Management
    (Daystar University, 2014-06) Lando, Agnes Lucy
    Many corporations have a Crisis Management Plan (CMP), which is designed to handle crises. These plans may include crisis response drills, evacuation plans, and standby machines/generators. However, when it comes to communication during a crisis, many organizations are ill-prepared because they lack a Crisis Communication Plan (CCP). Following the September 21, 2013 attack on the Westgate Mall in Nairobi, the public’s praises for the security forces swiftly degenerated into blame, insults, and expressions of betrayal. The government seemed unprepared. There was no clearly spelt out CCP detailing what and when to release information, as well as who and how to make the release. Hence, every step the government took to give updates about the attack and what it was doing to secure the mall and save people was challenged by the media and the public. The lack of a CCP was evident in the presentation of several spokespersons by the authorities, double talk, conflicting messages, and uncertainty on the matter. This paper thus argues that while corporations strive for a variety of strategies for crisis management, there is need to also enshrine CCP in their CMP. It utilizes Coombs’ (2012) three-stage crisis management model that carefully considers the pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis stages. Focusing on selected corporations in Kenya that suffered crises between June 1, 2012 and October 30, 2013, this research holds that the crises duration and negative impact could have been lessened if the organizations integrated effective CCP in their CMP
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    A multi-national validity analysis of the selfperceived communication competence scale
    (Taylor and francis group, 2019-03-06) Croucher, Stephen M.; Kelly, Stephanie; Rahmani, Diyako
    The self-perceived communication competence (SPCC) measure has been used in over 50 published studies since 2000. McCroskey and McCroskey (1988. Self-report as an approach to measuring communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 5, 108–113. doi: 10.1080/08824098809359810) developed the measure to be used within the US college/university classroom. Despite its intended use, the measure is frequently used outside of the US and outside of the college/university setting without tests of measurement invariance. In fact, only four studies have performed tests of internal consistency on the measure since 2000, and each has found poor fit. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the utility of the measure outside of its intended population. The measure was utilized to survey respondents from 12 countries and failed to yield acceptable fit statistics in all samples, showing poor evidence of construct validity.
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    Kenyan pastors’ perspectives on communicating about sexual behaviour and HIV
    (African Journal of AIDS Research, 2011-09) Neville, Ann Miller; Mwithia, Jesica; Kizito, Mary; Njoroge, Lucy
    The article presents an analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 leaders of Christian churches in Nairobi, Kenya, regarding the content and context of messages they disseminate to their congregations about sexual behaviour and HIV. The content of messages was nearly consistent across the different denominations. However, three sorts of tensions were identified within pastoral communication about these topics: the need to discuss sex and HIV versus societal taboos against speaking about those issues from the pulpit; traditional cultural norms versus current lifestyles; and the ideals of abstinence and fidelity versus the reality of congregants’ sexual behaviour. Although some of the religious leaders accepted the idea of condom use, no denominational patterns were noted on that subject, except with respect to Catholic priests. Pentecostal leaders were notable for describing proactive strategies to address both the ideal/real dilemma and the tension between church norms and current media content about sexuality and HIV.
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    In search of El Dorado? The experience of migration to France in contemporary African novels
    (CreateSpace Independent, 2007-05) Njoya, Wandia Mwende
    Literary criticism of recent novels about the theme of migration to France often fails to take into account both the reality and experiences of migrants. Worse, critics tend to minimize both the role of French imperialism and the strength of African cultures as they read these works. Their analyses raise the broad question of just how African migration literature can be interpreted to reflect the social realities which frame the action of the protagonists who are most vulnerable to France's contradictory immigration policies. Drawing on the concept of tragedy as both a genre and as a philosophical framework, I analyze four novels that convey the stories of francophone African immigrants to Europe. These are Fatou Diome’s Le Ventre de l’Atlantique, Alain Mabanckou’s Bleu Blanc Rouge, Bessora’s 53 cm and Nathalie Etoké’s Un amour sans papiers. The study reveals that the novels’ characters, style and narrative progression indicate the authors’ attempt to simultaneously articulate the suffering of poorer African migrants and appeal to the Republic to redress it. The search for a middle ground between Africa and France minimizes the Republic’s pursuit of power at the cost of African lives. This result contradicts the tragic imperative that the powerful actors receive blame for the suffering of the most vulnerable members of society. The unsuccessful attempt at neutrality also reflects the paradoxical situation of Africans who use the French language to articulate the dilemmas in which the Republic is heavily implicated. This study thus proposes a model of criticism that acknowledges the role of migrant experiences, African traditions and critics’ personal inclinations in the experience of and narratives about migration to France. It complements works by Jean-Paul Sartre, Frantz Fanon and Lewis Gordon that call on intellectuals to accept their implication in pressing social issues and to situate events on a global stage. The study also emphasizes the need to include a range of social, historical and environmental factors in determining the causes of injustice. Above all, it presents reality based criticism as an alternative to literary criticism dominated by theoretical concerns that often minimize the challenges of every day life.
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    Towards a theory of communication for Africa: The challenges for emerging democracies
    (Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, 2011-04-11) Obonyo, Levi
    While the scholarship on communication theory has evolved over many years in Africa it is still work in progress. This discourse has been anchored in society’s cultural milieu. The import of this is that the debate has evolved without incorporating the realities of Africa. Consequently, theories of communication and of the mass media are an ill fit on the continent. As communication scholarship in Africa matures, it requires examining how the realities of the continent can contribute to the development of a theory that best matches this environment. Some of these realities include the evolution of African governance, its culture, and the progression of communication as a discipline. While this article does not make the leap to propose what such a theory would look like, it seeks to raise some of these realities as a starting point for further discussion
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    The Importance of Formative Research in Mass Media Campaigns Addressing Health Disparities: Two Kenyan case studies
    (2013-01) Miller, Neville Ann; Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Thuo, Ann Muthoni; Mjomba, Leonard
    As compared to their urban middle-income counterparts, women and children living in rural areas and urban informal settlements in Kenya face special challenges in accessing health information and services. Television and print health information is often confined to towns and cities and shortages of health workers and supplies hamper most rural health care systems (CBS, 2004). At the same time, rapid urbanization has put unprecedented strain on the existing resources in the cities and has resulted in high rates of unemployment, poverty, and poor health outcomes especially among women and children living in informal settlements (Africa Population and Health Research Center, 2002; Mutua-Kombo, 2001; Ngimwa, Ocholla, & Ojiambo, 1997Only middle- and upper-class Kenyans who live in the largest urban centers have As compared to their urban middle-income counterparts, women and children living in rural areas and urban informal settlements in Kenya face special challenges in accessing health information and services. Television and print health information is often confined to towns and cities and shortages of health workers and supplies hamper most rural health care systems (CBS, 2004). At the same time, rapid urbanization has put unprecedented strain on the existing resources in the cities and has resulted in high rates of unemployment, poverty, and poor health outcomes especially among women and children living in informal settlements (Africa Population and Health Research Center, 2002; Mutua-Kombo, 2001; Ngimwa, Ocholla, & Ojiambo, 1997Only middle- and upper-class Kenyans who live in the largest urban centers have ready access to information about prevention and care, and can take advantage of a range of early detection technologies and treatment options at private hospitals.
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    Drunk with Knowledge: Depiction of a Professor in Robby Bresson's "Help"
    (Peter Lang AG, 2017) NYAOLE, ROSEMARY
    I am an ardent fan of African films. Over the years, I have developed a habit of figuring out the meaning in film narratives. This quest led me to study Help (2007), directed by Kenyan filmmaker Robby Bresson. In Kenya, the title professor is hard-earned and highly-esteemed. It is synonymous with research, publications, and several years of teaching at a university. Of course, I look forward to becoming one. The plot of Help revolves around Lumumba (Mike Rewa), a young male student who has just completed his Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KSCE). We learn from the exposition that his parents are separated and that he lives with his mother. The film begins with Lumumbas visit to his father George Simba (Peter King). On his trip back to the capital city, Lumumba gets a ride in his father s bus, Africa Pride. The father and son opt to use a different route, a shortcut, because the police have put in place three roadblocks. Passengers may have to pay up to three hundred Kenyan shillings each if they are caught using the main road.
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    Smartphones, Professional Behaviour and Workplace Socialisation in Kenyan Organisations: A Case of Capital FM
    (Africa Journal of Media Communication, 2020-07) Wamunyu, Wambui
    The news media industry globally has experienced a great range of changes due to the entry of digital technologies in journalistic practice. Journalists are facing the challenge of evolving norms and practices in commercial companies which in turn are struggling to generate revenues, as well as keep and grow audiences. The internet-enabled smartphone is among those technologies whose increasing affordability has caused it to be everpresent in journalists’ professional lives. This study’s research objective was to interrogate the use of the smartphone among journalists at Kenya’s pioneer commercial radio station, Capital FM, and the implications of that use on professional behaviour and socialisation. The study uses social learning theory and applies a qualitative case study research design. The data collection tools were observation and 23 purposively sampled interviews, the latter undertaken until saturation was reached. The data show smartphone use has facilitated the fast flow of multi-media content and changes to workplace routines. It has also redefined the nature of interactions among individuals in a working context, and transformed certain newsroom basics or rendered them obsolete. Overall, these changes suggest implications on the future vocational socialisation of journalists. The study recommends further long-term interrogation of the effect of smartphones and other digital tools on professional behaviour to better assess the effects of organisational norms, practices, and structures. Key words: Smartphones, Workplace Socialisation, Work Routines, Digital
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    How Teachers of English in Central Region of Kenya Perceive Portrayal of Gender in Literature Textbooks
    (Africa Journal of Media and Communication (AJMC), 2020-07) Gachari, Regina
    Textbooks are an important socializing tool and play a crucial role in determining students’ worldview of gender relations in society. Gender responsiveness is one of the emerging issues that have attracted major debates in various forums including in the education system in general and choice of textbooks in particular. This study examined the responses of teachers of English to gender issues in the following literature books; The River Between, An Enemy of the People, The River and the Source and Coming to Birth which were used as KCSE literature textbooks from 1999 to 2009 . The study applied the Reader – Response theory which emphasizes the reader’s role in creating meaning of a text and experience of a literary work. The findings indicated that the KCSE textbooks all had elements of gender bias, stereotyping of character and role, unequal representation of male and female characters and use of gender insensitive language. However, the study also revealed that some writers had made attempts to make the literature textbooks gender responsive. The teachers’ responses revealed that the teachers were keen and enthusiastic about gender issues in textbooks despite the fact that they had no formal training on how to implement the gender policy in education. The study recommends closer scrutiny of literature textbooks, in-house training of teachers on gender responsiveness, sensitizing students on gender responsive textbooks, training of education stakeholders and providing checklists for identifying gender stereotypes and other relevant gender issues in textbooks. In addition, it also recommends the development of a more gender responsive curriculum in tandem with Kenya’s developmental aspiration where men and women are viewed as partners in the development of all sectors of society.