Journal Articles

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 53
  • Item
    Challenges Kenyan Television Journalists Face in Spotting Fake News
    (Journal of Development and Communication Studies, 2020) Mutugi Kabucua John, Nyamboga Nyakundi, & Matu Nguri
    A fake news story can travel half way across the world as the truth puts on its socks. There are myriads of challenges facing journalists in spotting fake news hence its wide proliferation. Fake news has become a prominent subject of enquiry especially following its alleged influence of the 2016 general elections in US. Unfortunately, research on fake news has focused on social media, politics, elections, and economies. Few studies have focused on the challenges that TV journalists face in spotting fake news prompting this study. The specific research question was; what are the challenges facing television journalists in spotting fake news in Kenya? The study adapted a relativist-constructivist/interpretivist ontology and epistemology, qualitative approach and multiple case study methodology. Data was generated through in-depth interviews, direct observation and documents review. The study used purposive sampling to generate data from 16 journalists. Data was then analysed in themes and presented in narrative form. Key findings were that in spotting fake news, journalists faced challenges like; loss of viewers, lack of authoritative contacts, sources who gave fake news for personal, business, political, and economic benefits, ability of fake news to camouflage real news, speed of fake news, typologies of fake news, live reporting, inexperienced correspondents and interns, and social media. The study concludes that the challenges facing journalists in spotting fake news were majorly based on sources, technology, education, skills and training, and its typology. The study therefore recommends that editorial boards invest in experts to train journalists on styles, architecture, propagation and use of fake news, inoculation of journalists and audiences, raising fake news literacy levels, and use of technology based approaches like reverse search and fact checking sites.
  • Item
    Challenges in the Production of Innovation Content for Engineering Artisans: Case Study of Media Producers in Nairobi, Kenya
    (The International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies, 2016-10) Githinji Martin Kuria & Nyamboga Erneo Nyakundi
    Media producers in Kenya struggle at producing content for innovation in the digital television platform. The researchers, therefore, sought to examine the challenges and efforts in place for media producers to produce innovation content for engineering ‘Jua Kali’ (hot-sun) artisans and whether engineering ‘Jua Kali’ artisans can access the innovation content. The study was anchored on the pragmatic research philosophy. The study employed a mixed methods approach and a multiple case study was the research method. A sample of 60 respondents was studied. Data was generated through survey questionnaires and interview guides. The findings showed 68.9% of the engineering Jua Kali artisans found it difficult to access innovation content. Media producers also cited an irresponsive market to audiences and extra television relations hindered the production of innovation content. It is hoped that these findings will encourage the production of interesting, innovative content, from media producers and that engineering Jua Kali artisans will benefit from the findings.
  • Item
    Drop Analogue, and Digitize: The Practical Challenges in Kenya’s Digital Migration Programme
    (The International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies, 2015-12) Biwott Scholastica & Nyamboga Erneo Nyakundi
    The Regional Radio Broadcasting (RRC) conference held in Geneva in 2006 culminated in a treaty calling on all nations, Kenya included, shifting to digital terrestrial television (DTT) broadcasting by June 17, 2015. This paper provides a situational analysis of the practical implications of the digital transition in Kenya. To migrate to digital broadcasting, Kenya (government, broadcast companies, and media consumers) had to purchase equipment compatible with the digital platform, a move that proved costly to the majority of Kenyans given the high costs of purchase, installation, and maintenance of digital equipment. The research established that Kenya was not ready for the migration from analogue to digital broadcasting. The review found out that most of the local media houses as well as the majority of Kenyans were not ready to embark on the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting. These results would enable major players in the broadcasting sector to understand the course and implications of digital migration. The research also presents a better foundation upon which other scholars in the field of communication can build their studies and delve into different aspects ofthe topic at hand.
  • Item
    Establishing Knowledge Gap Issues in Kenya: Why Information for Innovation on Digital Television is Difficult to Access Among Jua Kali Artisans
    (IOSR Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 2016-10) Kuria Martin & Nyamboga Erneo Nyakundi
    The Kenyan engineering artisans a.k.a „ jua kali‟( hot sun) engineering artisans, do not easily and readily find information for innovation in the digital television platform. The researchers, therefore, sought to establish whether engineering content shown in the Kenya digital platform inspires creativity for innovation among this category of engineering artisans who mainly operate from open air spaces and under the hot sun. The study was anchored on the pragmatic research philosophy. The study employed a mixed methods approach and a multiple case study research method. A sample of 60 participants, comprising artisans and media content producers, was studied.The findings showed that 67.9% of the engineering artisans had considered that there is interesting and available innovation content in the digital television platforms. However, there were attitudes that hindered accessibility of useful innovation information from the digital television gadgets. Media producers cited that they had not fully grasped how the digital platform can work. It is hoped that these findings will encourage the production of interesting, innovative content, that will give rise to alternative information sources for engineering artisans.
  • Item
    Journalists’ Perceptions of Opportunities for Integration of New Media for Professional Use: A Study of Three Mainstream Newspapers in Kenya
    (African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research (AMJR), 2020) Elizabeth Gitonga, Charles Ong’ondo & Erneo Nyakundi
    The study evaluated journalists’ perception of opportunities for integration of various new media platforms for professional use. Print media journalists in Kenya and the world over have adopted new media technologies for professional journalism. However, a review of relevant literature shows that little research has emerged on the current integration practices targeting the three media houses combined. The study was guided by Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations theory. The qualitative multiple case study design was adopted. A sample size of 15 journalists drawn from both the print and online teams was selected purposively from three mainstream newspapers in Kenya. Data was generated using in-depth interviews, analysed thematically and presented in a narrative form. The study revealed that new media platforms have emerged as powerful tools of journalism across the mainstream print media in Kenya. Some of the opportunities cited in the use of new media are expanded tools for news gathering and new channels for dissemination of information to audiences. And of the various social media platforms, Twitter and Facebook and Whatsapp were the most widely used by journalists in Kenya for finding sources, story ideas and distribution of their journalism, among other uses. Legacy journalists were, however, slow in embracing new media while correspondents and those with personal drive saw new media platforms as an opportunity to improve their journalism. The study recommends research on the kinds of trainings offered to journalists to become fully multi-skilled. A further study on the problems facing journalists as they interact with the newest technologies would also be relevant.
  • Item
    Libel Litigation and Its Impact on Journalists’ Exercise of Freedom of Expression at Two Newspaper Publications in Kenya
    (The International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies, 2015-11) Nyamboga Erneo Nyakundi
    In countries that espouse the rule of law, interpersonal communication has to contend with legislation and ethical codes that allow for freedom of expression with limits. One such legal limit to expressive freedom is respect for the reputation of others. Courts of law and other administrative bodies exist to determine if there has been a violation of the right to reputation in the course of expressive freedom, and mete appropriate criminal and civil penalties on the culpable. This paper examines the communication dynamics in journalists’ subsequent sourcing, processing and dissemination of news and information against the backdrop of threats to sue, suits and the courts’ imposition of civil penalties on a newspaper defendant. The results of the inquiry conducted in Kenya show, among others things, that fear of being sued for defamation influenced newspaper content in terms of the quantity (removal of some material), quality (watering down stories) and structure (page placement of news articles). In a nutshell, some stories, including those of great public interest, were not published because of the threat of a libel action.
  • Item
    New Technologies and Journalistic Practices at the Time of COVID-19 in Africa
    (Advances in Journalism and Communication, 2023-09) Jean-Pau l Paluku Kamili, Erneo Nyakundi Nyamboga & Rosemary Nyaole-Kowuor
    This article aimed to show how new information technologies have influenced and innovated journalism practice during COVID-19 in terms of collecting, processing and disseminating news and information. The study was literature based. A literature-based study primarily relies on existing published literature rather than collecting primary data through experiments or surveys. The findings reveal that the management of new information technologies has led to the rise of infodemia, a phenomenon of misinformation that disrupts the informational ecosystem due to the prevalence of erroneous or misleading news. As a result, the media’s role as a watchdog is compromised. Infodemia has become the most prominent dimension of this challenge, with traditional media struggling to maintain their status as reliable source of information amidst the influence of amateur journalism on social media. The traditional media plays a crucial role in covering COVID-19 but faces challenges in producing and disseminating accurate information due to the specialization of journalism and the shortage of specialists. The emergence of new categories of journalistic practices, including terrorist journalism, diversionary journalism, ideological journalism, and journalism as a business, poses a major threat to the credibility, trust, and timeliness of real news. New technologies, particularly social media, have filled the void left by traditional media and facilitated the spread of fake news and rumors. Despite the challenges, information and communication technologies have brought innovation to journalistic practices in raising awareness against COVID-19 in Africa. The study provides several recommendations based on its findings. Traditional media outlets in Africa are recommended to prioritize hiring and training specialist journalists to cover health-related topics, establishing measures to combat the spread of fake news and rumors related to COVID-19, continuing to adapt to the use of new technologies in disseminating information, upholding ethical standards in reporting, and prioritizing public health awareness and prevention. Lastly, the study suggests the need for further research to better understand the impact of new communication technologies on journalistic practices in Africa in the context of COVID-19.
  • Item
    Need and Access to Genetically Modified Food Crops’ Information among Maize Farmers in Western Kenya
    (Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies (JAIS), 2023-06) Olomy Joseph J., Mulwo Abraham K. & Nyakundi Erneo N.
    This article aims to examine the dynamics of need and access to information about Genetically Modified Organisms among maize farmers in Western Kenya. The contention of this article is that despite Genetic Modification (GM) of food crops being around for more than two decades and championed as one of the possible solutions to global food insecurity, it has inspired a consistent polarized debate worldwide with a specific focus on the potential benefits and concerns over the safety to human health and the environment. We conducted a survey among 298 maize farmers in western Kenya and interviewed eight key informants from scientists researching GM food in Kenya to determine farmers’ GM food information needs, examine farmers’ access to GM food information, and assess the approaches used by scientists in communicating GM food information to farmers. Findings reveal that farmers accessed information mostly from sources that are unreliable and prone to misinformation. Approaches used by scientists in communicating GM food information to farmers were ineffective, rendering farmers dissatisfied with the amount of information they access. Findings further reveal that farmers required more precise and complete information from trustworthy sources, including scientists and the government. The study underscores the need for more involvement of farmers and the general public through constant engagement in GM food research and effective communication to enhance their knowledge about GM food. We recommend that scientists rethink their public engagement framework to ensure they reach farmers with more reliable information on GM food. The engagement framework should ensure coordinated messaging among the various stakeholders to avoid confusing farmers on the nature of GM food.
  • Item
    To Be Charged Again: Spotting of Fake News by Televion Stations in Kenya
    (African Journal of Education, Science and Technology, 2021-05) John Kabucua, Nyamboga Nyakundi and Matu Nguri
    Fake news is a major threat to credibility, trust, and speed of real news owing to its ability to spread fast, camouflage real news, spur ethnic conflicts, sabotage businesses and mislead voters. While there is empirical evidence that dissemination of fake news on social media and enactments of anti-fake news laws are on the rise globally, most of the empirical studies on fake news continue to focus on its political impacts and presence on social media. News television stations work under the premise of trust, credibility and speed now threatened by fake news hence the need to explore how they spot it. The specific research question was: How do news television stations in Kenya spot fake news?. The Gate keeping theory aided conceptualization of this study. The study adapted a relativist-constructivist/interpretivist philosophical paradigm hence qualitative approach and multiple case study method. The target population comprised of reporters and editors. A sample size of 16 participants from two television stations was selected using purposive sampling technique. Data was generated through in depth interviews and observations. Data was analysed thematically and presented in narrative form based on themes. The findings show that television stations spot fake news through counterchecking and verification, instinct, delays, online reverse search, calling the source, evaluating source’s credibility, chains of gate keepers, and editorial social media groups. Despite the numerous spotting practices fake news had permeated and aired on television resulting in court charges, fines, apologies and sacking of journalists. This study concludes that practices of spotting fake news by television stations in Kenya are incoherent, informal and weakly anchored on policy documents thus insufficient. Therefore, recommends that editorial boards establish standard and well documented practices for spotting fake news to arrest its growing threat to trust in news and journalism.
  • Item
    Social Media in Kenyan Journalism: Benefits, Opportunities and Challenges
    (IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 2014-12) Nyamboga Erneo Nyakundi
    Advances in technology have contributed a lot to the growth of journalism worldwide. Sourcinginformation and disseminating information has been made easy by the internet. Social media especially has made it possible for journalists and others to publish, share and discuss news events.This paper discusses social media use in Kenya with regard to its forms, benefits, opportunities it provides and challenges faced by media users especially in the Kenyan journalism sector.
  • Item
    Awareness, Knowledge, and Perception of Genetically Modified Foods Among Maize Farmers in Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia Counties, Kenya
    (Journal of Education and Practice, 2023-07) Olomy Joseph Joachim, Mulwo Abraham Kiprop & Nyakundi Erneo Nyamboga
    Several awareness studies have generally reported that the public is aware of genetically modified foods (GMFs). However, when their knowledge is probed, most studies have indicated that the public tends to fail to demonstrate an understanding of GMFs equivalent to the awareness levels reported. Nevertheless, there is scarce knowledge on the role of information on public knowledge of GMFs. In this study, we administered a semistructured questionnaire to 298 farmers from Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia counties in Kenya to assess their awareness, test their knowledge, and examine their perception toward GMFs. We then interrogated the farmers’ reported sources of GMFs information to determine the nature and quality of information accessible to them and its role in their knowledge and perceptions toward GMFs. Findings indicate that despite 99.3% of the farmers reporting being aware of GMFs, most had inadequate knowledge. Farmers receive unreliable information from sources that warrant misinformation, confusing them about GMFs. This confusion leads to farmers’ concerns primarily about the perceived risks of GMFs on human health and the environment. Scientific information about GMF is scarce, giving room for misinformation and increasing farmers’ anxiety and scepticism about GMFs. Still, farmers were found to be more optimistic than negative toward GMFs. The study concludes that inadequacy of knowledge is associated with the nature and quality of information farmers receive. We recommend that scientists and other parties involved with GMF rethink their communication strategies to engage the public with reliable and understandable facts about GM technology and foods to allow farmers and the general public to make informed decisions.
  • Item
    Commercialization of Intellectual Property Rights at Universities a s an Additional Revenue Stream
    (Paradigm Academic Press Law and Economy, 2024-03) Wekesa. M, Mikinyango A., Okayo A., Wekesa K. & Sikuku J. W.
    This paper investigates the commercialization of Intellectual Property (IPRs) at universities and the potential for universities in Kenya to leverage their Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) as a vital revenue source. Even though they possess significant intellectual assets, many universities have failed to utilize IPRs and in turn, losing opportunities for income generation. The paper introduces the concept of IP commercialization and the legal IP framework in Kenya and proceeds to discuss how research conducted in institutions of higher learning can be commercialized through an analysis of best practices and case studies. The discussion outlines the relevance of Intellectual Property to universities, the strategies for universities to maximize the value of their IPRs and establish sustainable income streams. Drawing upon relevant literature and academic research, it provides insights into the commercialization process, legal considerations, and the role of technology transfer offices in facilitating successful IPR monetization. The paper concludes by establishing that by implementing proactive strategies and fostering a culture of innovation, universities in Kenya can unlock the full potential of their intellectual assets and achieve financial sustainability.
  • Item
    Commercialization of Intellectual Property Rights at Universities as an Additional Revenue Stream
    (Paradigm Academic Press, 2024-03) Wekesa M, Mikinyango A, Okayo A, Wekesa K & Sikuku JW
    This paper investigates the commercialization of Intellectual Property (IPRs) at universities and the potential for universities in Kenya to leverage their Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) as a vital revenue source. Even though they possess significant intellectual assets, many universities have failed to utilize IPRs and in turn, losing opportunities for income generation. The paper introduces the concept of IP commercialization and the legal IP framework in Kenya and proceeds to discuss how research conducted in institutions of higher learning can be commercialized through an analysis of best practices and case studies. The discussion outlines the relevance of Intellectual Property to universities, the strategies for universities to maximize the value of their IPRs and establish sustainable income streams. Drawing upon relevant literature and academic research, it provides insights into the commercialization process, legal considerations, and the role of technology transfer offices in facilitating successful IPR monetization. The paper concludes by establishing that by implementing proactive strategies and fostering a culture of innovation, universities in Kenya can unlock the full potential of their intellectual assets and achieve financial sustainability.
  • Item
    The Use Of Electronic Tracking And Monitoring Systems And The Right To Privacy
    (International Journal of Social Science and Technology, 2020-08) Wekesa M , Muendo MM & Mikinyango A
    The Right to Privacy is a right that had been recognizes and applied differently all over the world. On the other side Governments have employed electronic monitoring and tracking techniques as part of their security tool kit. The employment of electronic monitoring has an impact on the individual’s right to privacy. While conducting electronic monitoring and tracking countries are required to uphold the right to privacy. This paper seeks to analyze the Right to Privacy and to what extent it has been implemented in relation to Electronic monitoring and tracking. The paper will compare legal frameworks from different States on the implementation of the right to privacy in relation to Electronic monitoring. The paper will also give recommendations that can serve as a guide to assist policy makers.
  • Item
    The Effect of a Three Week Sports Training Programme on the Coordinative Ability of Asthmatic Children
    (East African Medical Journal, 1993-11) Wekesa, Moni; Langhof, H
    We set out to evaluate the coordinative ability of asthmatic children and to find out how this component of physical fitness is affected by a training programme of a short duration. Seventeen asthmatic children participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 9.0 to 14.5 years. Their mean weight (+/- SD) was 44.89 +/- 14.94 kg and mean height (+/- SD) was 153.21 +/- 9.92 cm. Coordination was measured using the Body Coordination Test for Children (BCTC) developed by Kiphard and Schilling in 1974. The subjects participated three times a week in a sports programme. The results were analysed using the Wilcoxon test for dependent variables and regression analysis. We noted a significant improvement at the end of the training programme (p < 0.05), although there was no correlation between attendance and improvement in performance. Our results do not support the general view that asthmatics are unfit. We concluded that asthmatic children are not generally unfit, and that their coordinative ability can be improved within a relatively short time of training.
  • Item
    Exercise-induced Asthma (EIA) After Walking: a Case Report
    (East African Medical Journal, 1992-08) Wekesa, Moni
    A case in which exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was provoked at an intensity of less than 100 beats/min is discussed. EIA was provoked by a 12-minute walk test. Earlier tests using walking on other subjects had not produced such a result. It is therefore vital to teach asthmatics to monitor their pulmonary response at regular intervals to avert serious attacks in activities of daily living
  • Item
    Preparation and Medical Care of the Kenya National Hockey Team at the Fifth Africa Cup of Nations Championships
    (East African medical Journal, 1993-11) Wekesa, Moni; Asembo, J M; Njororai, W W
    A team of 25 top Kenyan male hockey players preparing for the fifth Africa Cup of Nations Championships was tested before and after seven weeks of training. At the end of the training, 16 of them were selected into the National team. The illnesses and injuries of the team members were documented using the Wekesa Protocol Sheet. The Asembo Hockey Fitness test was used to evaluate fitness. There was a significant decrease in the heart rate after training (p < 0.01). The sum of the recovery pulse decreased from 550.92 +/- 46.90 to 498.88 +/- 44.06 (p < 0.001). A significant (p < 0.01) improvement in the time taken to perform the test (before: 814.08 +/- 126.08 sec; after: 715.0 +/- 92.78 sec) was established. During training and the championship matches a total of seven illnesses occurred. There were no serious injuries, the commonest being contusions (70%), and lacerations (15%). The lower part of the body below the hips was more affected by injuries (60%) than the upper. The results of the fitness test confirm the commonly held view in sports medicine regarding morphological and functional adaptations due to training. The injuries recorded appear to be characteristic of hockey
  • Item
    Presidential Petitions in Kenya: Have Decisions of the Supreme Court Met the Test of Constitutionalism?
    (Africa Journal of Comparative Constitutional Law, 2019) Wekesa, Moni
    The Constitution of Kenya, 2010, stipulates that sovereignty lies with the people. This sovereignty can be exercised directly by the people through voting at periodic elections and referenda and indirectly through elected representatives, among others. Presidential elections in Kenya— as elsewhere in Africa—are usually hotly contested. Irregularities and illegalities are bound to occur. The Constitution of Kenya 2010 codified some rights, including those of the voter and the manner of conducting elections. The adjudication of presidential petitions was vested in the Supreme Court. Relevant enabling legislation and regulations have also been formulated. The Supreme Court has applied both the quantitative and qualitative tests in determining election petitions at different times. In the Presidential Election Petition of 2013, some of the issues canvassed revolved around whether there was a valid voters’ register and whether there were irregularities and if the illegalities observed were of a high enough threshold to affect the integrity of the election. The Supreme Court, applying the quantitative test determined that the election results would stand. However, in the 2017 Presidential Election Petition, the court, applying the qualitative test, deviated from its 2013 decision and nullified that election. The question that this article interrogates is whether the Supreme Court acted with constitutional fidelity in both these decisions. This article analyses the jurisprudence from the 2013 and 2017 decisions of the Supreme Court.
  • Item
    The Asthma Six-minute Provocation Test and Mountain Climbing in Children
    (1994-01) Wekesa, Moni; Langhof, H; Sack, P
    We investigated the intensity of exercise in the asthma six-minute provocation test (ASMT) for asthmatic patients and mountain climbing. Six asthmatic boys with mean age 11.7 +/- 2.1 years and mean weight 44.5 +/- 13.2 kg participated in this study. HR, FEV1 and RR values were recorded. In both forms of exercise, the participants achieved intensities of over 160 beats/min. EIA was diagnosed in five of them after the SSMT. There was not much variability in the PEFR values observed during mountain climbing. The rise in systolic pressure was within normal. The echocardiogram (ECG) was not pathologic. Further investigations are required to establish the suitability of mountain climbing as an appropriate form of sport for asthmatics.