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    Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Smallholder Dairy Cattle Production in Bungoma, Kenya
    (International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2020-12) Nalianya Gregory Wafula, Wakhungu Jacob W. & Nyandiko Nicodemus O.
    Climate change is becoming one of the most serious challenges to Kenya's achievement of its development goals as described under Vision 2030. Kenya is already highly susceptible to climate-related hazards, and in many areas, extreme events and variability of weather are now the norm; rainfall is irregular and unpredictable; while droughts have become more frequent during the long rainy season and severe floods during the short rains. Dairy farming is highly sensitive to climate change and variability, and rain-fed agriculture systems, in particular, are especially susceptible to unpredictable weather. Agricultural production is intricately linked to animal feed provision and hence, small holder dairy herd productivity. Small holder dairy farming faces a high risk of reduced productivity resulting from extreme weather occasioned by climate change and weather variability. Therefore this study sought to determine the impacts of climate change and variability on smallholder dairy cattle production in Bungoma, Kenya. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analyses approaches. Quantitative approach was descriptive, where frequencies and percentages were used. Correlation analysis was conducted to show the relationship between rainfall (mm), temperature (oC), dairy cattle population and milk production (kgs.) in Mt. Elgon, Tongaren and Kimilili sub counties. The finding indicates that there was decreasing acreage under fodder and pasture production. Farmers owned less than 5 dairy cows that produced a daily average of 5-8 litres and 2-5litres per cow during the wet and the dry season respectively. During the dry season, farmers used preserved feed, crop residues or feeds purchased from neighbours. While the tick borne diseases, pneumonia and lumpy skin incidences had increased in the county, foot and mouth disease had decreased during the past ten years. Extreme weather changes especially dry spell was associated with increased incidences of tick borne and Foot and Mouth diseases, shortage of feed resources and reduced milk production in the three study sites. Changes in climatic patterns especially the decreasing dry spell, droughts, and unpredictable precipitation has contributed to increased livestock diseases incidences such as East coast fever, foot and mouth diseases, shortage of feed resources hence, increased cost of food and feeds, and overall reduction of milk production in the Bungoma County. Therefore, there existed a significant relationship between the changing climatic patterns and smallholder dairy herd productivity in the county. Climate change and variability effects are on great increase and quickly eroding the gains of dairy technologies adapted in the recent times in the county to boost smallholder dairy cattle production in the county. The study recommends on both policy formulation and investment adaptations by the county government to address to minimize losses and damages incurred by smallholder dairy cattle farmers, occasioned by increased frequency of extreme rainfall over the three sites.
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    Nutritional Status and School Performance among Upper Primary Children in Selected Public Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya.
    (International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2016-12) Phrashiah Githinji , Peter Chege & Scolastica Githinji
    Background/Aim: School-age is a critical period during which adequate nutrition is considered an important factor that affects learning capabilities. There is an emergence of the dual burden of malnutrition among children in urban setups like Nairobi and yet there is limited information on the effect of these on school performance. Research has shown that nutritional status affects children’s development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional status on school performance among children in upper primary in selected public schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study. The study comprised of randomly selected 256 children from public schools within Nairobi County. Results: The study confirmed that there is concurrent dual burden of malnutrition among adolescent school children in Nairobi County; (8.6% were overweight while 9% were undernourished). Children with higher Z-scores/ BMI were found to be more likely to be inactive during field games and they preferred sitting in the field during physical activities (P ≤ 0.05). Children within normal weight for their age showed higher chances of performing well in classroom activities such as completion of assignments (P ≤ 0.05). However, the study showed no correlation between nutritional status and attendance. Conclusion: Children’s nutritional status influences their school performance in extra-curriculum activities namely; filed games and school clubs as well as completion of homework assignments
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    The Imperative for Real-World Experiences in Kenyan Teacher Preparation for Disability Inclusive Teaching
    (African Journal of Teacher Education, 2023) Johnson LeAnn A., Githinji Scolastica Kariuki, & Namai Joab
    Traditional university-based teacher training in Kenya has relied on theoretical campus-based coursework which provides strong knowledge but little opportunity to develop practical skills. The need for practical skills is particularly evident for teacher candidates who are expected to teach students with disabilities who attend class in regular education settings. This case study outlines a pilot class at Daystar University that incorporated video, field trips, and real-world assignments within an experiential learning model to determine the impact of real-world experiences on student attitudes towards individuals with disabilities and their families, knowledge of disabilities, and skills in identifying and using understanding of learner strengths and weaknesses to make instructional recommendations and incorporate those recommendations into the design of class-wide learning activities. Teacher candidates enrolled in the pilot class reported positive changes in attitude and understanding towards individuals with disabilities, increased learning, and had more confidence in their ability to work in inclusive classrooms. These results have implications for ongoing curriculum restructuring in teacher education in areas of the world where educator preparation lacks the necessary resources for implementing a series of fully supported field experiences leading to a full-time teaching practice opportunity.
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    School curricullum and enviromental sustainability
    (Technium Social Sciences Journal, 2022-06) Githinji Scolastica Kariuki, Boyo Barnard, Bowen Michael & Kiambi Purity
    Despite far-reaching environmental concerns, school curriculum in Kenya lacks adequate environmental sustainability address, yet global indicators show deterioration of the environment in developing countries is obviously leading to loss of biodiversity, rise in carbon levels, climate change (UNESCO. 2016) and overall poor-quality life. Research conducted on values education and environmental sustainability determined effective approaches to promote environment sustainability among school going children in Kenya. Inadequate environmental values education was hypothesized to lead to low awareness and action towards sustainability. To determine the extent to which Kenya’s education curriculum addresses environmental sustainability values for ESD, the findings form a basis for proposing innovation in EESD in school curricular. Mixed research design involved content analysis of the curricula and textbooks, descriptive surveys and expert interviews. Multistage sampling was applied among students and teachers from 8 former provinces of Kenya for administration of questionnaires to determine environmental content in educational materials, values and skills taught. Expert officials from KICD, MOEST, and UNEP were selected using purposive sampling for interviewing on required content, policy and adequacy. Findings indicated that EESD is not explicitly taught, does not adequately reflect in curricular objectives or textbooks, teaching on environment is mainly knowledge based and lacks experiential learning activities, heads of department (50%) have no training on environmental issues, students (51.8%) have not learnt enough of environmental issues, teachers (56%) are not motivated to teach about environment, and over 62% of teachers report the curriculum is insufficient to develop environmental values. MoE and NEEMA confirmed that values and policy on environmental sustainability are insufficiently taught, teachers are inadequately trained and initiatives on curriculum for environmental sustainability are inconclusive. Teaching and learning for EESD in Kenya is based on inadequate content, values and methodology. In conclusion appropriate EESD content, values and methodologies should be integrated in unfolding curriculum reviews for school.
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    Delinquency in Urban Kenya Secondary Schools: Implications for Parenting
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2020-07) Githinji Scolastica Kariuki
    Adolescents’ delinquency is on the rise in Kenya, yet most of the studies in Kenya have focused on status finding than alleviating the problem among adolescents. This paper is a presentation of the findings on prevalence of adolescents’ delinquency in urban Kenya secondary schools and the implications for parenting. A study was carried out to determine the links between parental behaviors and adolescents’ delinquency with a view to mitigating the parental behaviors associated with teenagers’ anti-social. The research was informed by Baumrind Parenting models theory, Social Control theory and Ego identity versus Role Confusion theory. The study participants comprised 219 female and 191 male students selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The researcher employed self-designed questionnaire and a self-report behavior checklist to gather data which measured adolescents’ perceptions of parents’ behaviors and their delinquent behaviors. A correlational survey design was employed. Parental conflicts significantly positively linked to adolescent non-illegal and generalized delinquency, while parental increased alcohol use positively related to non-illegal and minor-illegal delinquent behaviors at p < .01 (two tailed test). Parenting training, adolescents counselling and behavior surveillance in schools were recommended.
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    Inculturation And Liberation As a Form Of Religious Diplomacy In Reclaiming The African Identity
    (British International Journal of Education And Social Sciences, 2020-07) Syengo Steven Nduto and Chamwama Edith Kayeli
    Inculturation and Liberation are theologies which have seasonably preserved the African identity. The former expresses the inherent nobleness of Christian message in concrete African cultural forms while the latter holds together for the Gospel and experiences of men and women, loyal to the course of liberation in a wounded world, with a push to build a freer and more human African society. These two theologies were, essentially, meant to birth a holistic mode of evangelization that would inspire and empower Africans towards fulfilment of their potentialities and ideals. A discourse on a number of substantive issues relating to Africans, ousted the culture of contest which had accelerated the dismissal of African worldviews and knowledge systems, as irrelevant and unnecessary, for the true salvation of the Africans. The study encapsulates religious diplomacy as the necessary foundation for Inculturation and Liberation efforts through which different African cultures embraced the Christian message. Christian Mission, today, needs a renewed commitment to diverse and participatory evangelization practices of inclusive decision- making that value the distinctness of each culture to the extent that people come together to order their common life according to their needs, mentality, anxiety, thought-forms, and aspirations. Based on the above, the study will explore reflections on why the necessity of exercising power justly and fairly form a basis for mission in a wounded world; why justice, as the only true principle for humanity, is protection and kindness in a wounded world; and when mission has fancied itself most wise in human vulnerabilities.
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    An Investigation of Blending Inculturation and Liberation approaches towards new evangelization in Contemporary Africa
    (International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2018-07) Wachege P. N. and Syengo Steven Nduto
    In the endeavour towards propagating the Good News, there seems to be a dangerous categorization of Inculturation and liberation approaches as if they are dichotomized entities that impacts negatively on Christianity’s Kerygma (proclamation) and Didache (catechesis). The paper assumes that an intrinsic combination of these two main approaches would result in a holistic mode of evangelization that would fruitfully inspire and significantly empower contemporary people in Africa to embrace the Gospel in their entire concrete existence while taking them separately would result in impoverished ministry. One may thus hypothesize that a merger of the two approaches would greatly influence the way agents of the Gospel accomplish Christ’s mandate to effectively propagate Christianity, in corroboration with the Holy Spirit, in Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and to the remotest parts of the world (Acts 1:8), including today’s Africa. Such an assertion merits investigation at erudition level since it has been either ignored or handled superficially. Going by the assumption that Inculturation approach and liberation perspective in significant ministering of the Gospel have an indispensable affinity and actually, not just factually, necessarily imply one another (Nyamiti,2005:3-5) the study endeavours to verify that the merger has the potentiality of bringing about a holistic more effective evangelization mode that would bear abundant fruits in Africa in accordance with respective people’s socio-religio-cultural realities and signs of the times. Based on the above, the study will be guided by questions like: What is the perception and engagement of Inculturation approach in evangelizing service? How does the Christian Church understand and utilize liberation approach in the role of evangelization? How does the merger of Inculturation and liberation approaches make evangelization more significant in contemporary Africa? In what manner can the integrated model in Christian ministry be applied by the contemporary agents of evangelization in Africa to maximize the benefit to contemporary recipients in their historical concrete life situations? The paper will thus give a brief historical theological setting on the subject then scrutinize the nature and engagement of Inculturation approach in the evangelization ministry. It will also explore the perception and employment of liberation approach towards evangelization endeavour. This will be followed by a brief discussion on the blending of Inculturation and liberation orientations as a more fruitful mode of evangelization. Inculturation theory together with general and special revelation theory will guide the study.
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    Theological Pitfalls in the Quest for an Africa Evangelical Theology
    (ShahidiHub International Journal of Theology & Religious Studies, 2022) Maurice Peter Mutua
    The researcher reviewed the contributions of the African theologians on the subject and interrogated theological pitfalls in the quest for an Africa Evangelical Theology (AET). The study acknowledges that AET continues to face pitfalls from three theological trends in the continent. These are liberal ecumenism, pre-Christian traditional African religious experiences, and the prosperity gospel. These three aspects have resulted in liberalism, heretical tendencies, and the denial of the lordship of Christ, thus negatively affecting the Africa evangelical theology. These aspects threaten the Africa evangelical theology, although AET has the potential to influence all areas of faith and practice. The library research looks into the theological pitfalls that continue to threaten evangelical Christianity in Africa in the quest for a Christianity that is both African and biblically authentic.
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    The Exploitation of Religious Symbols in Political Rhetoric in Kenya: A Critical Perspective
    (The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, 2023-07) Wambua Brenda Mueni, Maurice Peter Mutua, Wachira Ann Njogu, Menecha Jared Bravin & Kabaji Egara
    This paper critically examined the literature on the exploitation of religious symbols in political rhetoric in Kenya; it focused on the 2017 general and presidential elections in Kenya. The paper conducted an extensive critical study on the usage of three major religious symbols, that is, mganga, Jubilee and Canaan, used in the 2017 general and presidential elections in Kenya and the biblical, contemporary meaning of these religious symbols and their usage. Moreover, an intricate examination was carried out on the use of religious gab and garb in relation to the said election. The paper borrowed heavily from culture, context and biblical literature and the significance of these to the question of exploitation of religious symbols. The paper unravelled the deliberate exploitation of religious symbols by the presidential flag bearers in both the NASA and the Jubilee coalitions in the 2017 general and presidential elections. A careful correlation was drawn between the usage of these religious symbols in political rhetoric and the relationship on the outcome of the general elections of the said period. Secondary data from written texts, such as articles, books and journals; audio-visual data, such as video clips; iconic texts, such as drawings, paintings and hypertexts, such as vlogs and blogs, were mined and synthesized. Through appropriation of semiotic analysis, meaning was generated, related and evaluated under the torchlight of the biblical yardstick to obtain verifiable, valid conclusions. This paper is meant to serve as a wake-up call to Kenyan society on the exploitation of religious symbols and the implication of these symbols during and after the 2017 general and presidential elections. Moreover, it is designed to arouse a polemic response from the clergy on the preservation of divine language and the place of divine talk. Finally, the paper seeks to sensitize the electorates to the careful evaluation of political rhetoric before making important decisions on matters of voting. The paper enumerates the dangers of the exploitation of religious symbols in Kenyan society and why this practice needs to be interrogated. The paper endeavours to articulate recommendations based on a proper understanding of the appropriate usage and meaning of religious symbols.
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    The Impact of Christianity on the Social-Economic Life of Sub-Saharan Africa
    (ShahidiHub International Journal of Theology & Religious Studies, 2022) Maurice Peter Mutua
    The study examines the socio-economic situation in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) and the role Christianity has played in responding to the contextual problems of the continent. It looks at emerging threats with socio-economic dimensions and the biblical foundations for engaging in societal transformation. In addition, it examines the biblical holistic approach and response to contemporary socio-economic challenges. The library research identifies the contributing factors to Sub-Sahara Africa‘s socio-economic struggles: poverty, disease, bad governance, and mismanagement of resources. The research also evaluates the ecclesiastical response to the identified challenges. Finally, the study proposes recommendations for churches.
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    The Psychosocial Effects Of Mobile Phone Usage Among The Youth: The Case Of A Selected Christian University
    (Journal of Language, Technology & Enterprenuership in Africa, 2020) Ndegwa Stephen & Mwangi Peterson
    This study’s aim was to investigate the psychosocial effects of mobile phone among the youth. This is because the mobile phone has become ‘a must have’ technological tool among many youths in Kenya and beyond. It has ended up bringing different effects in the lives of many users and of great concern to the negative ones. Through the findings of this research, it was found that some negative psychological and social effects amongst the students can be attributed to their mobile phone usage. The study was carried out in a Christian University among the students aged between 18 and 25 years. 120 respondents were selected in a stratified manner from the various programmes and years of study. All of them had used mobile phone with majority (98%), for a period between 2 – 10 years. The researcher used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The findings revealed that majority of the students (83.8%) were aware of the negative effects that might result from the continued use of mobile phone. The following were some of the negative psychosocial effects found among the respondents: financial challenges, cheating, stealing, stress, anxiety, and mobile phone addiction.
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    Effects of Parental Abandonment and Strife on Youth Drug Use
    (African Journal of Alcohol & Drug Abuse, 2021) Ndegwa Stephen & Winnie Waiyaki
    Parenting behaviour is a major contributor to youth behaviour, and has been shown to precipitate maladaptive behaviours among the youth. Parents have been shown to play a major role in the way children turn out to be later in life. When parents behave negatively, children are likely to behave the same ending up with problematic behaviours. Studies have shown that negative parental practices have produced young people involved in sexual promiscuity, poor academic performance and substance abuse. However, little has been studied on the effects of parental abandonment and strife between parents on youth negative behaviours in Kenya. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of parental abandonment and strife on drug use among youth at a Kenyan University. Using the descriptive research design (cross-sectional) the sample size of 407 respondents was selected at 80% power and 10% effect size using stratified random sampling techniques. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and researcher-generated socio-demographic questionnaire were used to collect data from the respondents. Inferential statistics using ANOVA analysed the data on the Statistical Package for Social and Sciences (SPSS) version 23. The results indicated that respondents who felt rejected at home (p=0.0001), those with parents who did not spend much time with them (p=0.048) and those who felt displeased with their parents’ behaviour (p=0.0001) were statistically associated with substance use. It is concluded that parental behaviour may have a negative influence on youth drug use. The study recommends that parents be made aware of the effect of their actions in abandoning children and in poor conflict management so as to forestall problematic behaviours in their children’s later life.
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    Factors Associated with Pornographic Materials Use among Students in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (African Research Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 2019) Njeru Michael, Nzyuko Solomon & Ndegwa Stephen
    Pornography addiction is a behavioral challenge that may expose adolescents to psycho-social problems in their developmental stage. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with pornography addiction among the students in selected secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. This study considered Classical Conditioning and Social Learning theories in explaining the pornography addiction among adolescents. A quantitative research approach was employed in this study in the selected secondary schools in Nairobi County. The sample size comprised 666 students who were purposively sampled from the two schools. Data collection was done using a questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The study findings indicated that a significant number of students were engaged in pornography. Factors attributed to pornographic material use include; time spent watching online content, availability of pornographic materials and accessibility to internet enabled devices. Majority of the respondents indicated mentorship and counseling as the most helpful ways to help in overcoming addiction problems instead of punishment. Based on the findings from this study, it is important that parents and guardians of adolescents to monitor online activities that are being done by their children. Additionally, it is important that parents and teachers to familiarize themselves with current trends on adolescent sexuality for purposes of proper mentorship and parenting
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    Prevalence of Pornography Addiction among Adolescents in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (Journal of Education in Developing Economies, 2019) Njeru Michael, Nzyuko Solomon & Ndegwa Steve
    Pornography addiction may predispose adolescents to negative behavioral and emotional patterns and consequently affecting their psychosocial well-being. There is need to determine whether adolescents watching pornography are merely satisfying some curiosity or struggling with a compulsion. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of pornography addiction among the students in selected secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. Classical Conditioning and Social Learning theories were considered in explaining the subject of pornography addiction. The study employed a quantitative research approach that was conducted among students in two selected secondary schools in Nairobi County. The sample size comprised 666 students who were purposively selected from the two schools. Data collection was done using a questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. The study found that a significant number of students are addicted to pornography. The prevalence is attributed to internet accessibility and affordability of pornographic materials. Based on the results, the study recommends the development of a curriculum that addresses age appropriate sexuality lessons at all levels. Furthermore, parents, educators and other stakeholders of interest should be equipped with knowledge to foster healthy development of adolescents sexuality while minimizing the risks related to pornography addiction.
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    Inculcating Spiritual Disciplines among Post-High School Youth A Case Study of the Vuma Transitional Program of the Nairobi Chapel Church, Nairobi Kenya
    (International Journal of Education Humanities and Social Science, 2021) Murumba, Pauline C.
    The future of any society is vested in the younger generation; and religious heritage is important in enhancing morality in society. In Kenya, culture change has led to a gap whereby the rite of passage in early adolescence only prepares young people for teenage life. After high school, when the Kenyan law recognizes them as adults, there is no institutionalized ROP. This creates a gap because youth are left alone to maneuver young adulthood. Realizing this gap, a few churches have developed curricula whereby they equip the youth with religious instruction that can jump start them into the next phase of life. Using Kolb’s experiential learning theory, this study endeavored to establish the role of church based transitional programs in inculcating Christian spiritual disciplines among post high school youth. A case study was done on the 2018 edition of the VUMA program organized by the Nairobi Chapel Church, Nairobi Kenya. In this phenomenological study, 30 out of 112 youth and all the five counselors and program director participated in interviews. The data was then transcribed into text and subsequently coded using the NVIVO software. The emerging themes provided the basis for discussion of the results. Findings revealed that the program inculcated a culture of Bible Study and Prayer among the youth through daily activities of Quiet Time, Bible study and teachings.
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    Maritime Insecurity at Lake Victoria, Homa Bay County Exploring the Socio-Economic Factors that Contributes to Instability
    (Jumuga Journal of Education, Oral Studies, and Human Sciences (JJEOSHS), 2003) Handa, Diana; Musya, Justus
    This research article examines the significance of maritime security, as one of the most recent axioms of international relations and diplomacy. It focusses on the socioeconomic factors that contribute to maritime insecurity along Lake Victoria's Homa Bay shores. In order to determine the research outcome, a qualitative research approach and an exploratory research design were used in unveiling the problem under consideration. Individuals and organizations/institutions from the Homa Bay’s Lake Region site were the target population. The research article has employed the purposive sampling technique and the saturation principle to obtain a sample size of 36 participants: 12 for in-depth interviews and 4 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) of 6 members each. The study also used qualitative interviews, focus groups, and observation to collect data. According to the findings, the main Illegal, Unregulated, and Unreported (IUU) fishing issues in Lake Victoria, Homa Bay County are unauthorized fishing, criminal gangs and pirates, encroachment by foreign fishers, employment of minors/children as fishers, use of prohibited gears and fishing methods, and fishing young, endangered, and protected fish species. Furthermore, IUU fishing is endangering fish stocks in Lake Victoria's Homa Bay County. In its results findings, the research article recommends that more patrol officers guard the waters in order to prevent illegal fishers and criminal gangs from roaming freely.
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    Implementation of early childhood development education service standard guidelines on physical facilities in public and private early childhood education centres Kakamega County, Kenya
    (Journal of Early Child Development and Care, 2016) Sitati, Emmily Mugasia; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Bota, Kennedy; Rapongo, George
    childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical facilities in ECE centres in Kakamega County. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Head teachers and ECE teacher were the study subjects. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. The instruments were validated through expert judgement and pilot testing. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences in adherence to the government guidelines in provision of classrooms and furniture. Nonetheless, significant differences existed between the two categories in adherence to the government guidelines in provision of water and sanitary and play facilities. The study recommended that the MoE infrastructure fund should be extended to ECE centres.
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    Research Authorization Processes: A Descriptive Comparison of Kenya and The United States of America
    (Journal of the Kenya National Commission for UNESCO, 2023) LeAnn, Jonhson; Namai, Joab
    Obtaining research authorization to ensure compliance with ethics regulations is critical for those seeking to conduct research. Consequently, the primary objective of this study was to closely examine information regarding review boards and review processes that a researcher would encounter during the process of preparing and submitting a proposal. Information posted about the review process from two similar universities, one in the USA representing a localized review process and one in Kenya representing a centralized review process was analyzed to address two key questions, “How well does each system support the successful approval of the researcher in preparing a proposal,” and, “How might the strengths of each system be used to improve the other to better support increased research for all?” Methodology focused on using key features related to five questions a new researcher might ask when preparing and submitting a proposal: What structure governs the review process? What is the composition of the review board? What does the research approval process involve? What information and documents are required for submitting a proposal? What evaluation criteria are used to ensure fair and consistent review of research proposals? Side by side comparative charts of key features related to each of these questions was used for the analysis. It was concluded that both systems supported the approval of ethical research and that both institutions adhered to their respective government’s research ethics policies. The biggest differences in the two systems related to the actual information provided by the institution to guide proposal development and submission, ethics training provided to researchers, costs, and timelines. The most significant weakness for both institutions was lack of information regarding specific criteria used for evaluation of proposals. Consequently, four recommendations were made. First, a supportive and positive relationship needs to exist between the review board and researchers. Structural elements that create an adversarial rather than cooperative relationship need to be identified and eliminated in order to provide collaborative support. This is particularly important for novice researchers. Second, providing or developing ethics training for researchers has the potential of reducing frustration for those preparing a proposal and increasing the quality of submissions to the review board. Third, while there is cost associated with research review, placing the burden of this cost on individual researchers can be detrimental to promoting research. Governments and institutions need to consider the value of research and find ways to reduce or eliminate personal costs to the researcher. Finally, it is imperative that review boards provide current, accurate, and complete information regarding proposal preparation and develop rubrics that result in transparent evaluation and useable feedback for the researcher.
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    The Journey of the Church: Engagement and Interactions through the Crisis towards the Finish in Alignment with Eschatological Times.
    (East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion, 2021) Oduor, Peter
    The study seeks to study the Christian narrative unearthing the wealth of resources inherent in it to act as a stimulant and a motivating force for the present church towards the much-desired immortality that is the mark of the finish. It is an account that dates back to the first century during the formation of the church to the present state of the church in her pursuit of an alignment to the eschatological roadmap stipulated in scriptures. The study employs the scholarship of the historical Christian narrative from the analogical perspective of a journey of the Israelites in the Pentateuch towards Canaan. This was a journey that was characterized by pulsations of moving and stopping based on the instruction and guidance of God. Similarly, the Christian story is one that is emphatic with regard to the involvement of God in the Christian journey. The study captures the dominant moves of God over the centuries and their significant contribution to the establishment and progress of Christianity and the key players in the entire process from the protestant movement to the Apostolic Reformation. This will facilitate the understanding of the church in her present state as a product of her past journey and development with regard to offering guidance and facilitation of Christian practice. It will help the church with regard to guidance to help her avoid falling into the pit that their forerunners fell into and also motivate her towards greater exploits for God
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    The Relationship Between Training of Assessors and Appropriate Placement of Children with Special Needs. The case of Uasin Gishu County. Kenya
    (International Journal of Arts and Entrepreneurship, 2015) Rotumoi, Joseph; Maru, Eunice; Cherui, Rodgers
    The study assessed support levels for placement of children with Special Needs Education in Uasin Gishu County in Rift Valley province. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between training of assessors and appropriate placement of children with Special Needs. The study adopted the theory of Planned Behaviour that relates to intention of behavior. A descriptive survey design was employed for the planning and execution of the study. Stratified, Simple Random and Purposive sampling techniques were used in choosing the sample size. The target population which is also the sample for the study included Education Officers, assessors at the education assessment centres, affected parents and Special Needs Education Teachers. The research instruments used to collect data were questionnaires, interview schedule and Observation checklist. Data collected was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study findings revealed that the country was still far from achieving education INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP VOLUME 4, ISSUE 9, 2015 http://www.ijsse.org ISSN 2307-6305 Page | 21 for all as attested by the fact that over 1.8 children with SNE had not been assessed and placed in appropriate programmes despite the governments’ effort of setting up EARCs in all the districts with the aim of taking the services closer to people. The study findings are expected to benefit educational planners in recommending for allocation of more resources for training, in-service and equipping the centres for better performance, enhance sensitization of parents and general public about the functions and value of assessment centres. It is further hoped that the findings of the study will bring about greater awareness with regard to the value of the assessment centres