ItemEffect of Digital Marketing Strategies on Business Growth in the Manufacturing Sector in Kenya: A Case of Selected Fast- Moving Consumer Goods Companies in Nairobi County(Daystar University School of Business and Economics, 2022-10) Mikassi, LysseMarketing involves all actions taken by a company to attract customers and maintain relationships with them. It plays a significant role in elaborating strategies that highlight publicity activities on product promotion to achieve growth. The purpose of this study is to establish the effect of digital marketing strategies on business growth in selected fast-moving consumer goods organisations in the manufacturing sector in Nairobi County. The objectives of the study were to identify digital marketing strategies consumers are accustomed to in selected fast-moving consumers goods companies in Nairobi County, assess business growth in the last two years (2020 and 2021) in selected Fast-Moving Consumer Goods companies and establish the effect of digital marketing strategies on business growth in selected Fast-Moving Consumer Goods companies. The study employed a research design based on primary and secondary data, with a structured questionnaire and selected financial reports. The sample size of the study was 235 customers. Data analysis was done with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 19 (SPSS 19). The study established that social media was the most known at 98.7%, followed by e-mail marketing at 89.8%, mobile marketing at 89.4%, and blog at 86.4%. The study found that Unga Limited, Procter and Gamble, and Sasini Limited are financially doing well despite the challenges faced due to Covid-19. The study also found that social media and relationship marketing had a positive and significant effect on business growth with a p-value p<0.05. From the research findings, the study recommends that Unga Limited, Procter and Gamble, and Sasini Limited should implement digital marketing strategies customers are aware of and consume the most such as social media (YouTube and Facebook) and relationship marketing, in order to come up with focused, timely and money saving strategies that generate effective results. ItemThe Central Bank of Kenya’s Decision on Dividend Payout for Banks: Using Case of Listed Banks at Nairobi Securities Exchange(Daystar University, School of Business and Economics, 2021-05) Kagwaini, Dorothy Muthoka; Opiyo, Amyrose; Kamau, Arnold; Kinyanjui, Wambui; Ireri, Winrose; Nzioka, Julius; Onjula, Rael; Okutu, Caren; Wesonga, Daniel Kwedho; Wanyanga, Abigael; Okuku, Beryl; Mutua, Jennifer; Kiiru, JemimahDividend per share is the yield that a company pays for the ordinary shares that are held by the shareholders. The dividend is calculated by dividing the total dividends paid out by the company, including interim dividends, over a period of time, by the number of outstanding ordinary shares issued (Miller and Modigliani, 1961). Actually, dividend is the part of profit or reserves that is distributed to shareholders. Dividend decisions are taken by the finance manager and approved by company directors. Dividend payout and policy remains one of the most controversial and unresolved issues in corporate finance. The management is in dilemma about to pay a large or small percentage of their earnings as dividends or even just retain the earnings. The reason is that the management must satisfy the needs of the shareholders. According to Maclaney (2016), the dividend payout ratio is the amount of dividends paid to shareholders relative to the amount of total net income of a company. The amount that is not paid out in dividends to shareholders but is held by the company for growth is known as retained earnings. Key decisions are how much and when to distribute dividends considering: 1. The size of the business 2. The stability of the firm 3. The dividend policy adopted by the management 4. The frequency of dividend payments The Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) sent out a circular dated August 14, 2020, to all banks. The circular citing the critical role played by banks during the Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic by ensuring maintenance of banking operations, provision of credit and availing relief to borrowers by way of restructuring loans. In view of this and as a result of the effects of the pandemic, Central Bank highlighted that as a consequence, commercial banks and mortgage finance companies would require further interrogation and evaluation regarding ways to address the impact in the immediate term (Central Bank of Kenya, 2020). The Circular further enumerated that in order to remain resilient banks would need to pay particular attention to bank balance sheets through additional capital and adequate liquidity. Subsequently, it was noted that those that would take precautionary measures would be resilient enough to better support post-pandemic economic recovery (Central Bank of Kenya, 2020). The Central Bank mandate of bank supervision guides that the CBK has the final say on whether or not the capital levels arrived at by each bank is feasible. Banks are required to assess and maintain on a regular basis capital that is considered adequate to cover risks to which they are/might be exposed. The determination is made upon endorsement by the Central Bank of a bank board’s decision to pay out dividends (Cytonn, 2020). Minimum capital requirement is considered imperative for banks as they need to maintain limits that can meet credit, market, and operational risks (Farid, 2010). That notwithstanding, CBK reported that the banking sector experienced a drop in pre-tax profit for the year ended 2020 to Kshs.112.9 billion compared to Kshs.159.1 billion the previous year – marking an 8-year low (Mwaniki, 2021). The CBK mandate of bank supervision consists of ensuring financial stability by the maintenance of a functional banking system. Ensuring that commercial banks and mortgage companies implement internal procedures and systems to maintain adequate capital resources is essential to forestall economic shocks in the future. Notably, the banks went ahead to declare dividends that would be sustainable such as Kenya Commercial Bank declaring Kshs.1 dividend per share in contrast with Kshs.3.5 the previous year. ItemCrypocurrencies and Block Chain: Critique to Central Bank of Kenya’s Public Notice(Daystar University, School of Business and Economics, 2020-11-30) Kagwaini, Dorothy Muthoka; Momanyi, Amos; Mushizi, Aubin; Wangio, Dreda; Shukhe, Duba; Momanyi, Elizabeth; Njonjo, Fidelis; Hajara, Gift Atta; Kaindi, Irene; Macharia, Irene; Mutendeu, Judy; Mbai, Miriam; Mbali, Rhoda; Kabeney, SalomeWith the disruption of technologies such as the big data, artificial intelligence, the internet of things, robotics, cryptocurrencies and blockchains, business models in various sectors have been influenced both positively and negatively. The World Economic Forum ‘prophecy’ of businesses and individuals failure to embrace these technologies is slowly coming to pass. Innovation diffusion theory was used to explain why Kenyans are still wondering whether cryptocurrencies and blockchain is hype or a transformational technology that is able to create business opportunity or not. The purpose was to critique the Central Bank of Kenya’s cryptocurrencies and blockchains public notice that was issued in an attempt to provide benefits and challenges of these technologies. Qualitative, secondary data was used based on narrative analysis specifically thematic analysis applied. The findings showed a trade-off between these technologies. The conclusion was that these technologies are transformational and probably will be adopted be as legal tender issued by the central banks. The contribution of this article is largely for academic purposes as well as to the Central Bank of Kenya, to spur them to research, learn and venture into ways of utilizing these technologies. ItemFinancing & Investment Decisions Amid Covid-19 Lockdown: Interviews Conducted From Various Businesses In Nairobi(Daystar University, School of Business and Economics., 2020) Kagwaini, Dorothy Muthoka; Marima, Lynette; Kioko, Maurice; Ronald, Grace; Mwaura, Julia; Odhiambo, David; Bharaj, Raven; Nyanumba, Phillip; Oduor, Lovine; Nderitu, Edwin; Chege, Edwin; Mutunge, Winfred; Kyule, Jonathan; Ndambuki, NelsonA mid the COVID-19 pandemic that has entered the fourth month since the first case was reported in March 2020, it has indeed brought unprecedented environment in the business arena. Actually, not only to businesses that are referred to as artificial persons, but also to the biological persons that are feeling the heat of the pandemic. In Kenya, most of the sectors of economy have been closed down as a result of the measures put in place by the government. This has led to loss of jobs, termination of contracts between businesses as well as low or cut payments to employees and suppliers. The Government has asked companies and business institutions to allow staff to work from home with the exception of some of the critical businesses making operations difficult. This has forced some of the organizations to rely on the digital platforms such as the Zoom, Google meet and Microsoft teams as their interaction platform with their clients thus ensuring their businesses continue even under the pandemic circumstances. The consequences have been felt globally with decline on global remittances, risks of accelerating mobile money with cyber-risks and digital fraud, risk of unhealthy diets, and even unintended consequences of health care for chronic people suffering from other diseases apart from COVID-19 and such like (World Economic Forum, 2020). With the expectation of the President Uhuru Kenyatta to open the economy and remove the lock down of counties, businesses analysts and chartists are struggling with the tussle between the bulls and bears. The bad news is that they are in favour of the bears in the near term. Looking at Europe, Asia and America, various governments have injected capital in to their economy while Kenya was not left out in this strategy. President, Uhuru Kenyatta announced some fiscal measures as well as monetary measures to help the economy recover from the downtrends of the pandemic. However, Kenya is still facing far more serious economic issues and with rising cases of COVID-19 pandemic, solemn thinking must be done by organisations as well as business leaders. On one hand, businesses are being required to invest in health and safety measures and on the other hand, businesses are wondering where the finances for those investment will be sourced from. The purpose of this article was to examine the various investment decisions as well as financing decisions businesses/or organizations are using in the midst of this COVID-19 Pandemic. The contribution of this paper is for institutions such like universities and schools to be aware of the eventualities and use the findings to learn from other organisations on what they have been able to achieve to maintain their sustainability. Other organisations a can use the results of this article to startegise on how to remain afloat; and individuals can also draw lessons from the artificial persons and be able to strategically plan for the days ahead. The paper was structured in five sections: Section 1 carried the introduction. Section 2 gave a brief literature review. Sections 3 explained the methodology; section 4 showed the findings and discussion while section 5 provided the conclusion and recommendation.