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ItemThe prerequisite for degree courses through open and distance learning: a case of the university of Nairobi, Kenya(University of Nairobi, 2015-06) Rugendo, John; Ndiritu, Anne W; Rugendo, CarolineThe government of Kenya has recognised education as an important pre-requisite for it to become an industrialised country. This realisation has necessitated the need to raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at all levels of education. The participation rate in higher education is of importance for the populace to be able to acquire high-level skills necessary for development. This is however not possible through the traditional conventional education methods only but also through Open and Distance Learning approaches to be able to reach a large number of students. In this regard, the University of Nairobi runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. The high failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate are chronic problems in distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of post-secondary experience of whatever kind. It is therefore worth finding out how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the relationship between postgraduate qualification and performance in B.Ed courses, a total number of 347 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for the B.Ed degree in different parts of study in the School of Continuing and Distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. The study investigated if the independent variables ( academic qualifications ) had a relationship with the dependent variables (academic performance). Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between the variables. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between post-secondary qualification and academic performance ItemBalancing work and study: A necessity for successful distance learning(University of Nairobi, 2015-06) Ndiritu, A; Chandi, Rugendo; Rugendo, Caroline Marigu NyagaAs the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The University Of Nairobi School of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569) ItemTobacco control interventions and their impact on cancer prevalence in Kenya(in EAMARC III Conference, 2016-11) Nyamasyo, E; Juma, Q; Wambua, BrendaThis presentation is based an on-going research on Tobacco control interventions and what impact these have on cancer prevalence in Kenya. It further identifies key gaps in both policy and research documentation and makes recommendations on priority areas required to strengthen existing tobacco control programs. ItemOptimal integrated solution on the rural digital: Adaptation from South Korea.(Kenya School of Monetary Studies, 2018) Kagwaini, Dorothy Muthoka; Kinuthia, Francis GitauRural Kenya has challenging environment for implementation of communication infrastructure, for data and Internet services, the situation drives network operators to establish network infrastructures in urban areas leaving rural areas as underserve. This paper seeks to identify and recommend an optimal integrated technical solution that utilizes television white space and fiber optic technology, to address the rural digital divide with respect to broadband internet in Kenya. Specifically, for farmers in championing of the Food Security pillar in the Big Four Agenda. With an argument that television white space and optical networks can be integrated and deployed, with the government support to deliver an optimal cost effective solution to reach the digitally unreached and underserved rural populations. The motivation for the study is that despite the potential socioeconomic benefits and growth in demand for broadband internet, rural areas remain isolated digitally. The study, will appraise various flavors of fiber optic technology, features of television white space before going on to recommend a deployment architecture informed by the results of county situation analyses and lessons learnt from South Korea which is recognized for its quality and technology innovativeness. The contribution of this study is to encourage researchers and technologists to partner and drive higher education to the next level. Also, to ensure cost effectiveness, the government is encouraged to partner with any operators of technology to provide incentives such as tax rebates and zero rated services to make the big four agenda a reality. ItemThe End Game of Humans through “Grin” Technologies: University Educators’ Role(Daystar University, School of Arts and Humanities, 2019) Kagwaini, Dorothy MuthokaThe rapid pace of emerging technologies is playing an increasingly important role in overcoming fundamental human limitations. While the new dispensation of Fourth Industrial Technology (4IR) introduced a realization of a successful and sustainable digital economy, it has not yet achieved a smart society of strengthening techno-ethical inquiry of technology advances in areas unseen by creators while the users change the intended use of the new technology. Technological Singularity Theory was used in this article to discuss the theoretical framework. On one hand, the end goal is to have the earth produce beings that will be immortal and be able to understand mysteries. On the other hand, the problem of immortality with self-awareness and ego will likely disrupt the business as well as the society. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the end game of humans through ‘GRIN’ technologies and the role of Educators in universities. A systematic selection of science fiction movies were selected based on secondary data collected through documentary white papers from World Economic Forum and recent European novels that formed the findings of the paper. The findings showed that ‘GRIN’ technologies was being propelled by the universities as the ‘think tanks’ and may usher in unprecedented social and political upheaval that could affect all corners of the globe. In addition, professors/lecturers could borrow ‘management by objectives’ strategy to engage students on the need for techno-ethics. In conclusion, the government and academicians’ interest in ‘GRIN’ technologies incorporated into the human body will merely provide a reimagining of what it means to be human. The paper recommended university stakeholders especially Daystar University which is a Christian university in Africa to spur guidelines for public policy towards morphological human enhancement and create awareness of this emerging technology ItemThe Role of IASB on Corporate Reporting Disclosures: Use of Artificial Intelligence(Faculty of Management and Finance, University of Ruhuna, 2019) Kagwaini, Dorothy MuthokaIn the year 2015 the International Accounting Standards Board made a decision to stick to their core business of financial reporting. However, the need for efficient and effective ways of measuring and communicating non-financial information is paramount to ensure the realization of corporate reporting disclosure that has been at loggerheads with the traditional financial reporting. The purpose was to provide clarity in how the International Accounting Standards Board could play a more proactive role on corporate reporting disclosures by focusing on artificial intelligence. This will enable preparers to have a clear understanding of which standards would be appropriate when evaluating non-financial information. The paper adopted a qualitative approach whereby white papers from the World Economic Forum as well as journal papers were used. Drawing from the use of artificial intelligence, this paper reported on the current developments of the Global Regulator‘s taxonomy, benefits of corporate reporting disclosures by firms along with practical guidelines for mentality change of Accountants in their profession. Finally, challenges advanced by the artificial intelligence such as societal impacts were argued. It was concluded that the Global Regulator could improve the current taxonomy to include non-financial information. This paper will contribute to the body of knowledge as there is scarcity of published data related to to corporate reporting disclosure in emerging economies as well as their responsiveness to country specific regulators. ItemAdopting Course Completion Tracking and Conditional Activities to Enhance Engagement in eLearning for University Students(IST-Africa Institute and IIMC, 2021) Wambua, Anthony W; Maake, BenardStudent engagement is an overarching problem in the learning context that instructors continue to grapple with. Several attempts that utilize features within the Learning Management Systems (LMSs) have been made to increase student engagement and motivation for online courses. This paper presents the findings of the adoption of completion tracking and conditional activities to enhance engagement in Moodle, a leading LMS. To investigate the effectiveness and the potential of completion tracking and conditional activities in enhancing engagement, data was collected from 90 students across four courses, further Moodle logs were examined. The research findings indicate completion tracking and conditional activities significantly increase learner engagement in online classes. These findings have significant implications on instructors conducting online classes and the development of student engagement for online courses. The present research fulfills the need to study how completion tracking and conditional activities features can be used to enhance learner engagement in Moodle LMS. ItemTrends in Mergers & Acquisitions(Communication Authority of Kenya & Daystar University, School of Business and Economics, 2021-09) Mburu, RaphaelThe goals of a merger regime is to: ensure firms do not acquire, strengthen or preserve market power (dominance) that can be used to harm consumers and competitors. support the country’s broader economic policy agenda. Mergers are enforced in terms of Part IV of the Competition Act, No. 12 of 2010 of the Laws of Kenya. Review is done in terms of sections 41-49 of the Act ItemOverview of the Competition Act of 2010 & Areas of Research(Communication Authority of Kenya & Daystar University, School of Business and Economics, 2021-09) Roba (Dr.), Adano WarioThe Competition Authority of Kenya is established by section 7 of the Competition Act No. 12 of 2010 ItemCommunicating the Vote by Acclamation in Kenya Parliament: What does the Speaker Hear and whether it promotes democracy(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Kilonzo, KethiDistinguished Communication Scholar, Donald K. Smith (2013) asserts that “communication is what is heard, not only what is said. This assertion is in congruence with the communication process and models which appreciate the various elements that play a pivotal role in effective communication. One key determinant of effective communication is whether what the audience speaker hears and understands, is close or exact as what the source has said. This is the intended discourse of this paper, having in mind the Kenyan Parliament. After key issues have been debated, the speaker normally calls the house to vote on the motion. More often than not, the vote is by acclamation. And the decision is made by the speaker whether the AYEs or NAYs have it. This means that the decision is largely dependent on what the speaker hears, irrespective of how loud the AYEs or NAYs shout. In view of the foregoing and considering that members of parliament are the representatives of the people of Kenya, the mode of voting and how it is communicated is paramount. The fate of the sovereign will of the people and the promotion of democratic ideals depends on what the speaker hears through this mode of communicating the vote. The decision of the speaker further determines the extent to which the national values and principles of governance are upheld. It is therefore critical to examine this mode of communicating the vote with the following issues in mind; extent to which it realizes the sovereign will of the people; democratic ideals, constitutional values and principles of governance and established model(s) of effective communication, this paper scrutinizes select decisions that have been arrived at based on this approach and the significance of the same. ItemIs The Triple Helix Approach to Commercialization of IP the Panacea For Africa?(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Wekesa, MoniCommercialization of IP depends on creations and inventions. These two invariably result from research and development (R & D). Africa spends less than 1% of her GDP on R & D activities. Additionally, there is very little coordination between various agencies dealing with IP in African countries. This is compounded by other factors such as low levels of IP awareness, an archaic academic culture at universities, lack of coordination in the use of research facilities, and lack of entrepreneurial skills amongst academics. Despite legislation to protect indigenous knowledge, very little comes out of it. Attempts by Ghana to commercialize her folklore has not borne fruits. The numerous institutions touching on R & D and IP in Morocco have not placed that country ahead of the others in matters of IP. South Africa, which has the highest expenditure on R & D at 0.8% if GDP does not produce as many patents as a single institution in USA. Consequently, the University of California registers more patents per year than the continent of Africa. The approach used by most institutions in Africa is one in which an institution attempts to interest industry. The diverse cultures operating between the two institutions make cooperation rather difficult. Research institutions come up with inventions that the industry does not need, or research institutions are not able to align their research agenda with the needs of industry. Neither is able to meet the needs of the other. The ‘triple helix’ approach proposes a model in which government is the main driver bringing research institutions and industry together. This model has been used with a lot of success in Victoria, Australia. This paper seeks to interrogate how the ‘triple helix’ model can be adapted to answer the question of improved commercialization of IP in Africa. ItemThe effect of ESG Reporting on the reduction of Climate Change: A focus on the “E”(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Namiinda, LindaIn the recent past, financial institutions have sought to incorporate sustainability in their scope of work. Since they are one of the main players in development, financial institutions have taken it upon themselves to ensure the activities they are funding are not encouraging environmental degradation. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other global institutions are hell-bent on encouraging “green finance” worldwide. In Kenya, the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) has come up with Environmental Social Governance (ESG) disclosure guidelines. All listed companies are encouraged to include ESG disclosures in their annual reports. Stakeholders are no longer interested in just the financial performance of companies but also the environmental social and governance impact that the company has in the society. Companies are expected to make these disclosures every financial year. Banks and other lending institutions are also encouraged to find out how creditors intend to use the money borrowed and whether the intended activities will have a positive or negative impact on the environment. The question that this research paper seeks to answer is whether the data received in the ESG disclosures would have a direct impact in the reduction of climate change. Being voluntary self -reported disclosures, reliance is made on the goodwill and honesty of the company. The author shall rely on publications and interviews to conduct the research. The research seeks to establish whether sustainable development would be achieved where only guidelines are provided. ItemDoes Kenya Practice Democracy or Epistocracy?(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Wekesa, MoniThe constitution of Kenya places the common person at the centre of democracy, starting from the preamble. Article 10 places public participation at the centre of decision making in matters affecting the common man, all government institutions are bound to involve the common person in policy making. The constitution prescribes public participation by giving the common man right to decide how he is to be governed, political rights such as vying for elective positions, voting and participating in constitutional referendums. This is based on the presumption that they can make informed choices. However, based on the elite theory of democracy where the elites are bound to rule - and as such use their wealth, connections and the fact that they are more educated than the average citizen, to control decisions and events within a state it is questionable whether in fact the common person does participate in effective democracy. There elites include ‘political’ brokers who are also ‘deep state’, and who influence legislation, appointments and even voting. These elites are sometimes referred to as epistocrats. The elites occupy a ‘privileged’ position in society that makes society listen to them. This then begs the question whether it is the common person or the epistocrats who actually determine the form of governance in Kenya. This paper uses a comparative approach on constitutional amendment procedures and practices to evaluate the sovereignty of the common person in Kenya. ItemSustaining International Peace and security and development, through ADR: the Russia – Ukraine conflict, ADR the forgotten too(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Owuor, MauriceInternational peace and security is inextricably tied to international development. And that ADR is an important cog in that wheel. It is in view of the foregoing that research into the emerging nexus is paramount. The global conflicts which threaten development inter alia, the Russia - Ukraine conflict in particular comes to mind. The said conflict has awakened the world to the interdependence, interconnectedness and inter relationship of states inter se It is now evident that international peace and security is a sine quo non condition for development. And that disruption of international peace and security in one corner of the globe affects development in other distant parts. The foregoing conflict has also re - emphasized that sustainable global development and international peace and security requires, the resolution of global disputes using other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms inter alia; mediation, conciliation, arbitration. Negotiation et cetera. ItemMedia law and practice in Kenya: the confluence of regulation and liberty of thought.(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Oloo, MartinThe regulatory environment for the practice of mass media reveals the ever-existing tension between freedom of the press, democracy, and the rule of law. The promulgation of the progressive Constitution of Kenya 2010 embeds constitutional safeguards for the freedom of the press and freedom of speech. This study assessed the state of the mass Media law and practice in Kenya post the Constitutional of Kenya 2010, against three key research questions: 1) To what extent does Kenya entrench international and constitutional safeguards for freedom of the press in Kenya? 2) What is the effect of the rise of the social media on the regulatory environment in Kenya? 3) To what extent is the media in Kenya, regulated in view of the challenge of the private and the public interest? The research was mainly based on the literature review and focus group discussions with a select set of practising advocates and journalists. The findings of the research point to the fact that Kenya’s constitution entrenches the freedoms of the press and liberty of thought, while offering exceptions. With the exceptions, a follow-on debate arises around the question: does the regulatory environment for the mass media stifle or misrepresent the citizens’ voices? ItemThe Role of Data Governance in Development in Kenya(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Musikali, LoisRecently, there have been various attempts by the Government of Kenya, directly or indirectly, to collect data from its citizens. Amongst these are the efforts at Huduma Number registration as well as the recent call by the Communication Authority of Kenya to re-register all telephone lines. The motives behind these efforts at data collection have been shrouded in controversy with the government arguing that data collection is a necessity for economic development while a significant number of citizens have been wary that data collection by government agencies would curtail their constitutional right to privacy among other constitutional rights. The aim of this paper is to explore these two perspectives, their validity and the role of data governance in mediating this of citizen-government distrust and thereby facilitating economic development. This paper will begin by reviewing the role of trust in general governance and development, whether governments can be trusted, and what causes citizen to distrust their governments. It will then explore the benefits of citizen-government trust for economic development. This will be followed by a consideration of the role of data governance in creating and increasing citizen-government trust and thereby making the collection of data an easier activity when the same is required for economic development. This paper will review Kenya’s legal framework on data protection, particularly, the Data Protection Act, with a view to making suggestions for reform that would increase citizen-government trust during government-led data collection exercises and in so doing facilitate economic development. ItemNeed For Protocols For Sharing Of And Access To Research Facilities In Kenya(Daystar University, School of Law, 2022) Wekesa, MoniResearch institutions in the country acquire their facilities and equipment at different times. Due to limited budgetary allocation of less than 1% to research and development, an institution may have to wait for five or more years to get funds to renew their facilities. This is a global reality. This reality calls in the need for sharing of and access to available facilities. Kenya has two major international laboratories namely; the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) that have state of the art research centres such as KEMRI, KEFRI, Kenya Marine Fisheries Research Institute and Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO) also have well equipped laboratories and experimental sites. Universities also have research facilities, most of which are suitable for basic research. These research institutions do not ‘talk’ to each other. There is no national inventory of the research facilities held by each institution. Collaboration and cooperation in research is done on an ad hoc basis, i.e. without clear memoranda of understanding. Several challenges are likely to arise where there is no agreement on the use of facilities. First and foremost is that deserving researchers would be unfairly denied access to much needed facilities. Secondly, where inventions are made, the question of ownership of intellectual property (IP) can lead to prolonged litigation. Thirdly, where equipment like computers and motor vehicles are bought using research grants, ownership of the equipment at the end of the project can be a source of conflict. Fourthly, issues of wear and tear with respect to replacement of consumables and accidental breakages ought to be determined before access is granted. Fifthly, is the question of duplication of resources. Sixthly, some equipment could become obsolete before they are maximally used. This paper seeks to analyse the challenges around ‘sharing of and access to’ research facilities and make recommendations for watertight protocols as a solution to the challenges. ItemDepression among Orphaned Adolescents in Selected Children’s Homes in Githurai Division, Nairobi County(Daystar University School of Applied Human Sciences, 2022-10) Wambui, Purity GitahiThis study sought to investigate depression among orphaned adolescents in selected children’s homes in Githurai Division, Nairobi County, Kenya. The objectives were to explore the prevalence of depression among orphaned adolescents, determine factors contributing the depression, examine coping mechanisms adopted by orphaned adolescents, explore ways of helping orphaned adolescents who are depressed in the selected children’s homes in Githurai Division. The study population comprised orphaned adolescents (13-19 years old) in the ten selected children’s homes in Githurai Division. A sample of 81 orphaned adolescents was selected through purposive sampling. Data collection was done using questionnaires and in-depth interview and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 and was presented in form of statistical tables, charts, and graphs. The study established that 23.5% of all the orphaned adolescents aged between 13-19 years in the selected children’s homes met the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). The study found that a major factor contributing to depression among orphaned adolescents include separation from family and close relationships at 63.2% The study also found that coping mechanisms adopted by orphaned adolescents to deal with the death of their parents include remaining hopeful for a bright future. Some of the orphaned adolescents coped by taking alcohol, beating other children and smoking of cigarettes, bang, among other drugs. The study revealed that the most important way of helping orphaned adolescents who are depressed is through provision of basic needs. The study recommended that community awareness programs should be conducted. Further, orphaned adolescents in children’s homes should be trained on important life skills like interpersonal skills, social skills, problem solving skills, leadership skills and communication skills.